Octavian, Antony, and Cleopatra The Second Triumvirate: Partners in Power Proscription Lists ? eliminate opposition What next? Revenge against Caesar?s assassins Battle of Phillippi (42 BCE): Antony and Octavian vs. Brutus and Cassius Suicide for Brutus and Cassius Now who gets control of what? Will Octavian?s ?assignment? help him in the long run? Antony heads east to Greece and Tarsus Cleopatra VIII of Egypt (69-30 BCE) Macedonian Greek of the Ptolemaic Dynasty that ruled Egypt from after the death of Alexander the Great until 30 BCE. Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE) was the last of the Ptolemaic rulers. Became queen in 51 BCE but technically had to share the throne with a male co-ruler, first, with her 10-year-old brother Ptolemy XIII [with whom she was fighting a civil war when Julius Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Egypt, after Pharsalus] and later with her brother Ptolemy XIV. [Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile in 47 BCE and Ptolemy XIV died in 44 BCE.] Spent time in Rome during Caesar?s dictatorship (and must have met Antony then). Returned to Egypt after Caesar?s assassination. Was 29 years old when she made her spectacular appearance in her royal barge at Tarsus. The Greek biographer Plutarch describes her arrival and impact on Antony. (Shakespeare made use of this description in Antony and Cleopatra ii.ii.195-223.) Cleopatra was brilliant, intellectual, fluent in several languages, including Egyptian (a language other Ptolemies never bothered to learn), and obviously fascinating to Antony. Antony spent the winter with her in Alexandria, and her twins (Alexander and Cleopatra) by him were born in 40 BCE. Wives and Lovers 40 BCE: Trouble in Italy for Octavian Fulvia (Antony?s wife) and Lucius Antonius (Antony?s brother) and 8 legions occupy Rome. Octavian and friend Agrippa + Army Drive Fulvia and Lucius out Force surrender Fulvia dies in Greece Antony returns to Italy Almost another civil war Instead: The Treaty of Brundisium Octavian got East; Antony got West. Antony married Octavia (Octavian?s sister), and the two of them headed east. Antony returned with a pregnant Octavia to Italy in 37 BCE; she stayed in Italy when he left for the east. 37 BCE ? Triumvirate renewed Pregnant Octavia stays in Italy Antony returns East Antony planning campaign against Parthians Cleopatra joins him in Antioch (Syria) Antony acknowledges children by Cleopatra Marriage by Egyptian or Macedonian law Cleopatra = mistress as far as Romans concerned Pregnant Cleopatra => Egypt (36 BCE) Antony?s Parthian campaign = disaster 34 BCE: Antony takes Armenia Triumph for Antony in Alexandria (Egypt), not in Rome. Kingdoms for Cleopatra and their three children ? the ?Donations of Alexandria? Caesarion proclaimed Julius Caesar?s legitimate son Cleopatra and Caesarion = rulers of Egypt What was Antony thinking? What were his plans? Octavian in Italy Octavian and Agrippa have defeated Pompey?s son Sextus (36 BCE) Octavian declares no more civil war Octavian honored at Rome Ovatio (Lesser triumph ? because Romans citizens) Given the sancrosanctity of a tribune Builds power base in Italy The buildup to war: Tensions, charges, and propaganda The Triumvirates second term ends in 33 BCE Antony divorces Octavia (Octaivia is beloved in Rome) Octavian has Antony?s powers nullified Octavian and ?spin? Antony?s will The Oath of Allegiance to Octavian Romans = clients One More War Octavian has war declared against Cleopatra (not Antony) Foreign enemy = war not a civil war If Antony sides with this foreign enemy, Antony = a traitor (Octavian btw is a consul at this point) 31 BCE ? The Battle of Actium Winner = Octavian (thanks to Agrippa) 30 BCE ? Octavian takes war to Egypt Cleopatra and Antony commit suicide Egypt = Roman Province 29 BCE : Octavian has triumph at Rome Closes the gates/doors of the Temple of Janus
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