Baby Alexa's brother Fred has started screaming whenever he is left in his room for a nap. The first few times this woke up from her own nap, but now she sleeps right through it.
Fred always jumps off his bed after his nap with a loud bang. He then runs downstairs and greets Alexa with a tickle, making her laugh and cough reflexively. Soon, Alexa begins to laugh and cough when she hears the bang, before seeing her brother.
Alexa lies in her crib while her father shows her a ladybug toy. Every 10 seconds or so he takes the toy away for a few seconds, and then puts it over her head again. Each time, Alexa looks again at the ladybug. About the 10th time, her father drops the ladybug by mistake and the dog runs off with it but Alexa continues to look for the toy to appear
Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning
Alexa randomly makes many vocalizations throughout the day. Her "coos" elicit laughter and hugging from her parents, and this seems to make her cooing more frequent.
When Alexa sees her big brother Fred banging on a drum, she starts beating her hand on the tray of her highchair (as if it is a drum)
Alexa's family has lots of photos on the wall, and one of these is of Alexa's mom and aunt, who look a lot alike. When Alexa is 3 months old, she looks equally long at the two women in the photo, but by 6 months of age, Alexa spends more time looking at her mother's face in the photo than that of her aunt
How change in a particular skill occurs
A researcher interested in examining which of the following would be most likely to use a microgenetic design?
A researcher interested in how children interact with their elementary school teachers on a daily basis would probably do best by using which of the following methods?
All of the above- whether a particular culture prized independence or interdependence among people, whether it is common for mothers of young children to work outside home, whether a child comes from a poor versus middle-income family
Which of the following is a part of the sociocultural context that might affect children’s development?
If the vast majority of people in a society believe something, it does not need to be tested
All of the following are major principles of the scientific method EXCEPT:
Manny's quiet nature influences him to seek out other quiet children, with whom he plays quiet games and stays away from the more rambunctious children in his class.
Which of the following is the best example of children's active contribution to their own development?
Dr. Leno is a researcher who wishes to measure children's creativity levels. To do this, he asks children how many imaginary friends they have and considers this to be a measure of their creativity. A second researcher, Dr. Letterman, disagrees that this is a measure of creativity and instead believes that the number of imaginary friends a child has is an indicator of level of mental disturbance. Dr. Letterman believes Dr. Leno's measure of creativity has a problem with its:
Group assignment- whether they were trained in the new game or not
A class of third-grade children is split into two groups through random assignment. Group A is given training in a new game, and Group B is not. What is the independent variable?
A child's entry into a new stage involves a gradual shift from one way of experiencing the world to a different way of experiencing it.
With which of the following statements would stage theorists (theorists who view development as discontinuous) DISAGREE?
The interaction of nature and nurture
In a study of adopted children, the finding that the only children who had a considerable likelihood of becoming schizophrenic were those who had a schizophrenic biological parent and who were also adopted into a troubled home is evidence of:
An experimental design
A researcher wants to examine the effects of television watching on children’s vocabulary development. She randomly assigns children (and their parents) to a schedule of watching 10 hours of TV a week for 6 weeks or 0 hours of TV a week for the same time period. She then gives the children a vocabulary test. What type of design is this?
A researcher is interested in eight-year-old Jane's thoughts and feelings about living in poverty. The researcher would like to thoroughly explore Jane's thoughts and feelings. Which of the following would be the researcher's best option for obtaining this information?
A researcher asks children a series of predetermined questions about how much they like to play with their siblings. The researcher is using which of the following?
A researcher is interested in examining the association between how humorous children are and their school achievement. Two observers go to children's homes and judge children as “not funny at all,” “slightly funny,” or “very funny.” Upon comparison of the observers' judgments, it is apparent that the observers have a high level of disagreement as to children's humor level. This measure of humor level has poor:
Direction of causation problem
A town committee learns that there is a strong negative correlation between the number of inches of daily rainfall and the number of children who use the neighborhood playgrounds each day. If the committee were to conclude that high rainfall is caused by children not using the playground, they would have which of the following problems?
A researcher is interested in the development of depression. She interviews children ages five, nine, and thirteen about their depressive symptoms. This is an example of which type of design?
Zygote, embryo, fetus
Which of the following is in the correct developmental progression, from earliest to latest?
All of the above: Sperm containing a Y chromosome swim faster than X, Male fetuses are more vulnerable to miscarriages, Cultural values and governmental policy contribute to the differences in the number of male and female babies born in some societies
Which of the following is a true statement about the disproportionate number of males and females?
Specialization of eye cells
Which of the following is an example of cell differentiation?
Cells are initially flexible and then become inflexible.
Which of the following is a true statement about the flexibility of a cell's function during the embryonic and fetal periods?
Researchers working on diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's are interested in early embryonic stem cells because of their:
Gina's infant is likely to be more active than Margaret's infant.
Gina and Margaret are pregnant at the same time. Gina's fetus is quite active throughout the day, whereas Margaret's fetus is rather inactive. Which of the following would be the best guess as to how active their infants will be?
Research demonstrating that it is the scent of amniotic fluid that guides newborn rats to their mothers' nipple is evidence of:
Has learned to recognize a stimulus
Habituation indicates that a fetus:
When a saccharin-dye combination was injected into the amniotic fluid of some fetuses and dye only was injected into the amniotic fluid of other fetuses, the urine of the saccharin mothers contained more dye than the urine of the no-saccharin mothers.
How have scientists concluded that fetuses prefer sweet flavors?
initial changes in heart rate, with decreased changes as the ringing continues.
A fetus who hears a phone ring repeatedly over the course of several minutes will likely experience:
All of the above- sounds, flavors, smells
Infant preferences based on prenatal experience have been demonstrated for:
Their mothers' language over another language
Newborns prefer to listen to:
The earliest age at which fetal habituation has been observed is ______ weeks' gestation.
Which sense is stimulated the LEAST in the uterus?
Which of the following is NOT a movement generally performed by fetuses?
all of the above: amount of exposure, genetic susceptibility, levels of exposure to other teratogenic agents
The likelihood of a prenatal defect and the severity of the defect from exposure to teratogens are generally dependent on which of the following factors?
the greater the exposure to the teratogen, the greater the likelihood of a defect.
For teratogens that show a dose-response relation:
Which of the following is NOT a maternal factor that has a negative impact on the health of the fetus?
A sensitive period is the time when a system's basic structures are being formed.
Which of the following is true of sensitive periods in prenatal development?
The fetus smells alcohol through the amniotic sac.
Which of the following statements about fetal exposure to alcohol is NOT true?
Disruptions in the migration of neurons during fetal brain development
Both radiation and alcohol exposure can lead to which of the following:
All of the above: cigarettes, cocaine, malnutrition
Which of the following maternal factors can lead to premature birth or low birth weight?
All of the above: They are more likely to have cognitive impairments, to be hyperactive, to have trouble with peer relations and the majority of low-birth-weight babies end up similar to normal-weight babies in the long term.
Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the long-term prospects for low-birth-weight babies in comparison to babies of normal weight?
Babies who cry more are more likely to survive times of severe hardship, such as famine.
Which of the following would be considered evidence that infant crying and adult aversion to it have adaptive significance?
Quiet sleep, active awake, and drowsing are examples of:
arrangements with more elements in the upper half than in the lower half
Newborns' bias toward which of the following is an underlying factor in their attraction to human faces?
the sociocultural context
The finding that today's infants are crawling later than infants born less than a generation ago is evidence for the effect of:
An infant randomly makes many vocalizations throughout the day. Some of her vocalizations elicit no response from her parents, but several elicit laughter and hugging from her parents. Eventually, she learns to make those vocalizations in order to get laughter and hugs. The infant has learned this through which type of learning?
An infant who learns a new way to climb up on the living room sofa by watching his older sibling has learned this through which type of learning?
By what age would you expect an infant to be able to visually recognize which of two objects she had just touched?
All of the above: Direction, distance, shape, trajectory
When reaching for an object, infants must take into account:
Infant Greta hears a bell that she cannot see. She immediately turns toward the bell. This is an indication that Greta has which of the following abilities?
Infants can learn through instrumental conditioning by what age?
independent movement of the flowers as they are removed from the vase
Ten-month-old Judy sees a novel sight—flowers arranged in a vase. Which of the following is the most important cue that would help Judy know whether she is seeing a single object or multiple objects?
To examine whether infants can perceive a difference between a square of uniform color and a square with a pattern on it, a researcher displays the two squares side by side. The researcher records the number of seconds infants look at each square. This method is called the:
A researcher taking a dynamic systems approach to motor development would be most likely to examine the impact of which of the following on the development of crawling?
Child-rearing practices can either accelerate or retard infants' motor development
Which of the following statements is an accurate portrayal of the impact of nurture on infants' motor development?
They both involve learning from the regularity in the environment.
Which of the following is a true statement about statistical learning and perceptual learning?
Cease to be shocked by violence
Parents who are concerned about the habituation effect of their children watching violent acts on television are most concerned that their children will:
forming associations between stimuli that occur in a predictable pattern.
Statistical learning involves:
Identical twins Ilyse and Lauren both have a gene for Trait H. The gene for Trait H is only expressed when a child eats rice before the age of 2. Ilyse and Lauren are separated at birth, and Ilyse lives in Japan, where babies begin eating rice at an early age. Lauren lives in the United States, and she is not given rice before the age of 2. Ilyse develops Trait H, whereas Lauren does not develop the Trait. This is an example of:
Connections between neurons are formed
In the process of synaptogenesis:
Plasticity is highest, and thus recovery from brain damage is most likely, when which of the following is still occurring?
Psychological traits, such as empathy, aggression, and shyness, follow which type of inheritance pattern?
the differences in the timing of development of different skills and behavioral categories.
The different rates of synapse production in different areas of the brain are indicative of:
Which of the following increases the speed and efficiency of electrical impulse transmission?
Which of the following is a direct effect of malnutrition?
Some genes are expressed for only a short period of the cell's life
Which of the following is a true statement about gene expression?
During the process of meiosis, parents' chromosome pairs are shuffled randomly and crossing over occurs, and thus parents pass on chromosomes that are constituted differently than their own.
Which of the following is a true statement about the chromosomes that parents pass on to their offspring?
Its lobes differ in terms of the general tasks with which they are associated
Which of the following is a true statement about the cerebral cortex?
Northern American adults are several inches taller than their same-sex great-grandparents were.
Which of the following is an example of a secular trend?
Congenitally blind individuals show activation of the visual cortex when reading Braille and Deaf individuals' responses to peripheral visual stimuli are several times stronger than those of hearing people
Which of the following is evidence of the ability of the human brain to reorganize when an expected form of sensory experience is absent?
A study that examines whether adopted children's scores on a particular measure are more highly correlated with their adoptive parents' scores or their biological parents' scores is referred to as a(n):
Lenny's father is also quite active, and he frequently brings Lenny to the playground, athletic games, and amusement parks.
Lenny is a very active toddler who began to crawl, pull himself up to a standing position, walk, climb, and run at a very early age. Which of the following is NOT an example of a way in which Lenny's phenotype could affect his environment?
Brain cells that are specialized for transmitting electrical messages are referred to as:
Effects of which of the following result from the fact that even children who grow up in the same family do not have all of the same experiences?
The genetic material a child inherits can directly affect the child's environment.
All of the following are true statements about genotypes and phenotypes EXCEPT:
Which of the following is NOT a source of variability among individuals in physical development?
Which type of plasticity relies on normal human experience for normal brain development and thus requires human genes to code less information and still result in normal development?
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