A female cat in heat urinates more often and in many places. Male cats are attracted to the urin deposits. Which one of the following is a proximate cause of this increased urination?
It is a result of hormonal changes associated with her reproductive cycle.
A female cat in heat urinates more often and in many places. Male cats congregate near the urine deposits and fight with each other. Which of the following would be an ultimate cause of the male cats' response to the remale's urinating behavior?
Responding to the odor means location reproductively receptive females.
Which of the following examples describes a behavioral pattern that results from a proximate cause?
A female bird lays its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each day.
Although some sharks close their eyes just before they bite, their bites are on target. Researchers have noted that sharks often misdirect their bites at metal objects and that they can find batteries buried under sand. This evidence suggests that sharks keep track of their prey during the split second before they bite in the same way that:
A platypus locates its prey in a muddy river.
The proximate causes of behavior are interactions with the environment, but behavior is ultimately shaped by:
Animal communication involves what type of sensory information?
Visual, tactile, auditory and olfactory.
What type of signal is long-lasting and works at night?
What type of signal is brief and can work among obstructions at night?
What type of signal is fast and requires daylight with no obstructions?
A chemical produced by an animal that serves as a communication to another animal of the same species is called
Research has shown that nocturnal animals navigate using:
The North Star.
Circannual rhythms in birds are influenced by
Periods of daylight and darkness.
Upon returning to its hive, a European honeybee communicates to other worker bees the location of a nearby food source it has discovered by:
Performing a round dance.
Karl von Frisch demonstrated that European honeybees communicate the location of a distant food source by:
Performing a long, straight run during a waggle dance.
Animals use pheromones to communicate:
Through trial and error, a rat learns to run a maze without mistakes to receive a food reward.
A human baby performs a sucking behavior perfectly when it is put in the presence of the nipple of its mother breast.
A mother goat can recognize its own kid by smell.
Visual and olfactory.
Upon observing a golden eagle flying overhead, a sentry prairie dog gives a warning call to other foraging members of the prairie dog community.
Tactile and auditory.
A cage containing male mosquitoes has a small earphone placed on top, through which the sound of a female mosquito is played. All the males immediately fly to the earphone and go through all the steps of copulation. What is the best explanation for this behavior?
Copulation is a fixed action pattern, and the female flight sound is a sign stimulus that initiates it.
If mayflies lay eggs on roads instead of in water, it would indicate which of the following?
A misdirected response to a sign stimulus.
Which of the following is true about imprinting?
It may be triggered by visual or chemical stimuli.
A type of learning that can occur only during a brief period of early life and results in a behavior that is difficult to modify through later experiences and is called:
Learning in which associated stimulus may be used to elicit the same behavioral response as the original sign stimulus is called:
Every morning at the same time, John went into the den to feed his new tropical fish. After a few weeks, he noticed that the fish swam to the top of the tank when he entered the room. This is an example of:
A salmon returns to its home stream to spawn. What term best applies to this behavior?
Parental protective behavior in turkeys is triggered by the cheeping sound of young chicks. What term best applies to this behavior?
A guinea pig loves the lettuce kept in the refrigerator and squeals each time the refrigerator door opens. What term best applies to this behavior?
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ in that:
Operant conditioning involves consequences for the animal's behavior.
Some dogs love attention, and Frodo the beagle learns that if he barks, he gets attention. Which of the following mich you use to describe this behavior?
The dog's behavior is a result of operant conditioning.
Among songbirds, a "crystallized" song is one that:
Is a perfected species specific song.
What is the normal imprinting stimulus to a hatchling graylag goose?
A nearby object that is moving away.
Scientists have tried raising endangered whooping cranes in captivity by using sandhill cranes as foster parents. This strategy is no longer used because:
None of the fostered whooping cranes formed a mating pair-bond with another whooping crane.
Which of the following shows the adaptive significance of cognitive mapping to animals that employ this type of learning?
Cognitive maps reduce the amount of detail required to remember the location of an object the in the animal's environment.
White-crowned sparrows can only learn the "crystallized" song for their species by:
Listening to adult sparros songs during a sensitive period as a fledgling, followed by a practice period until the juvenile matches its melody to its memorized fledgling song.
Image that you are designing an experiment aimed at determining whether the initiation of migratory behavior is largely under genetic control. Of the following options, the best way to proceed is to:
Perform within-population matings with birds from different populations that have different migratory habits. Rear the offspring tin the absence of their parents and observe the migratory behavior of offspring.
What probably explains why coastal and inland garter snakes react differently to banana slug prey?
Ancestors of coastal snakes that could eat the abundant bana slugs had increased fitness. No such selection occurred inland, where banana slugs were absent.
Which of the following statements about evolution of behavior is correct?
Natural selection will favor behavior that enhances survival and reproduction.
Feeding behavior with a high energy intake-to-expenditure ratio is called:
In the evolution of whelk-eating behavior in crows, which of the following was optimized through natural selection?
The average total energy used to break shells.
Which of the following might affect the foraging behavior of an animal in the context of optimal foraging?
Risk of predation
You discover a rare new bird species, but you are unable to observe its mating behavior. You see that the male is large and ornamental compared with the female. On this basis, you can probably conclude that the species is:
The evolution of mating systems is most likely affected by:
The mating system in which females are more ornamented than males is:
What is the fitness benefit of polygamy in birds that rear precocious young?
Fit males don't have to help feed and rear young and can spend this time seeking and mating with many females.
Which of the following statements is true about certainty of paternity?
Paternal behavior exists because it has been reinforced over generations by natural selection.
Which of the following best describes "game theory" as it applies to animal behavior?
The fitness of a particular behavior is influenced by other behavioral phenotypes in a population.
The color of throats of males in a population of side-blotched lizards is determined by:
The success of the mating behavior of each of the throat color phenotypes.
The 'fru' gene in fruit flies:
Controls sex-specific development in the fruit fly.
Is a master regulatory gene that directs expression of many other genes.
Can be manipulating in females so that they will perform male sex behaviors.
Programs males for appropriate courtship behaviors.
Pair-bonding in a population if prairie voles can be prevented by:
Administering a drug that inhibits the brain receptor for vasopressin in the CNS of males.
How do altruistic behaviors arise through natural selection?
By his/her actions, the altruist increases the likelihood that some of its genes will be passed on to the next generation.
Which of the following does not have a coefficient of relatedness of 0.5?
An uncle to his nephew.
Animals that help other animals of the same species:
Are usually related to the other animals.
The presence of altruistic behavior is most likely due to kin selection, a theory maintaining that:
Genes enhance survival of copies of themselves by directing organisms to assist others who share those genes.
In Belding's ground squirrels, it is most likely the females that behave altruistically by sounding alarm calls. What is likely reason for this distinction?
Females settle in the area in which they were born, so the alarm is warning kin.
The central concept of sociobiology is that:
Most aspects of our social behavior have an evolutionary basis.
In the territorial behavior of stickleback fish, the red belly of one male that elicits attack from another male is functioning as:
The behavior of most animals is influenced by the period of daylight and darkness in the environment. Fiddler crabs' courtship behaviors are instead synchronized by the 29 1/2-day cycle of the moon. What is the adaptive significance of using lunar cues?
By courting at full and new moon, fiddler crabs link their reproduction times of highest ties that disperse larvae to safer, deeper waters.
During a field trip, an instructor touched a moth resting on a tree trunk. The moth raised its forewings to reveal large eyespots on its hind wings. The instructor asked why the moth lifted its wings. One student answered that sensory receptors had fired and triggered a neuronal reflex culminating in the contraction of certain muscles. A second student responded that the behavior might frighten predators. Which statement best describes these explanations?
The first explanation reders to proximate causation, whereas the second refers to ultimate causation.
One way to understand how early environment influences differing behaviors in similar species is through the "cross-fostering" experimental technique. Suppose that the curly-whiskered mud rat differs from the bald mud rat in several ways, including being much more aggressive. How would you set up a cross-fostering experiment to determine if environment plays a role in curly-whiskered mud rats' aggression?
You would place a newborn curly-whiskered mud rats with bald mud rat parents, place bald mud rats with curly-whiskered mud rat parents, and let some mud rats of both species be raised by their own species. Then you would compare the outcomes.
Fred and Joe, two unrelated, mature male gorillas, encounter one another. Fred is courting a female. Fred grunts as Joe comes near. As Joe continues to advance, Fred begins drumming (pounding his chest) and bares his teeth. Joe then rolls on the ground on his back, gets up, and quickly leaves. This behavioral pattern is repeated several times during the mating season. Choose the most specific behavior described by this example.
Which of the following is true of innate behaviors?
They are expressed in most individuals in a population.
According to Hamilton's rule,
Natural selection favors altruistic acts when the resulting benefit to the beneficiary, corrected for relatedness, exceeds the cost to the altruists.
Female spotted sandpipers aggressively court males, and after mating, leave the clutch of young for the male to incubate. This sequence may be repeated several times with different males until no available males remain, forcing the female to incubate her last clutch. Which of the following terms best describes this behavior?
A region of the canary forebrain shrinks during the nonbreeding season and enlarges when breeding season begins. This change is probably associated with the annual:
Addition of new syllables to a canary's song repertoire.
Although many chimpanzees live in environments containing oil palm nuts, members of only a few populations use stones to crack open the nuts. The likely explanation is that:
The cultural tradition of using stones to crack nuts has arisen in only some populations.
Which of the following is not required for a behavioral trait to evolve by natural selection?
In each individual, the form of the behavioral is determined entirely by genes.
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