Last Modified: 2011-10-06
Skin - composed of epiderman and dermal regions.
Functions: Protects deeper organs from injury & dessication, excretes salts, helps regulate body temperature, and produces Vit. D
Bones, Cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and joints
Functions: Structural support, protection of internal organs, provides levers for muscular action, provides a site for blood cell formation.
Muscles attached to the skeleton
Function: to contract or shorten; in doing so, skeltal muscles allow locomotion, grasping, and manipulation of the environment, and facial expression. They help generate heat.
Brain, Spinal Cord, nerves, and sensory receptors
Function: Allows body to detect changes in it's internal and external environment and to respond to such information by activating appropriate muscles or glands; help maintain homeostasis of the body via rapid transmission of electrical signals
Pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal & pineal glands, ovaries, testes, and pancreas
Function: Helps maintain body homeostasis, promotes growth and development; produces chemical messengers (hormones) that travel in the blood to exert their effects on various "target organs" of the body
Heart, blood vessels, and blood
Functions: Primarily a transport system that carries blood containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ions, hormones, and other substances to/from the tissue cells where exchanges are made; blood is propelled through the blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. Antibodies and other protein molecules in the blood act to protect the body.
Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and scattered collections of lymphoid tissue
Function: Picks up fluid leaked from the blood vessels and returns it to the blood; Cleanses flood of pathogens and other debris; Houses lymphocytes that act via the immune response to protect the body from foreign substances (antigens).
Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Function: Keeps the blood continuously supplied with oxygen while removing carbon dioxide; Contributes to the acid-base balance of the blood via its carbonic acid - bicarbonate buffer system.
Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and accessory structures (teeth, salivary glands, liver and pancreas)
Function: Breaks down ingested foods to minute particles, which can be absorbed into the blood for delivery to the body cells; Undigested residue removed from the body as feces
Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra
Function: Rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes (urea, uric acid, and ammonia), which result from the breadown of proteins and nucleic acids by body cells; Maintains water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of blood
Male: Testes, prostate gland, scrotum, penis, and duct system, which carries sperm to the body exterior
Female: Ovaries, Uterine tubes, uterus, mammary glands, and vagina
Function: (Male) Provides germ cells (sperm) for perpetuation of the species;
(Female) Provides germ cells (eggs); the female uterus houses the developing
fetus until birth; mammary glands provide nutrition for the infant.
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