Peer groups Factors leading to peer groups in an age-graded society ? Child labor laws ? Schools ? Maternal employment ? Student employment Peer groups a problem or a necessity? ?The Adolescent Society? by Coleman ? Youth culture; sub culture; counter culture ? Lack of academic interests ? Peer pressure positive or negative? ? Development of social skills and intimacy ? Same age, race, social class Historical transition ? Postfigurative societies have particularistic norms ? Cofigurative societies have universalistic norms ? Prefigurative societies; adolescents become adults? teachers The development of cliques ? social skills ? Sex cleavage; adult supervision ? Opposite sex; no adult supervision Crowds ? Large groups...... peak during mid-adolescent years ? Based on reputation.....jocks, brains, nerds ? Serve as reference group and identity development Unpopular adolescents ? Aggressive ? Withdrawn ? Aggressive-withdrawn * Acting-out behavior ? Relational aggression......girls ? Hostile attributional bias or projection.....both sexes ? Displacement of anger ? the domino effect ? Academic failure ? Conduct problems ? Depression ? Drug problems ? Sexual acting-out Ethnic and cultural factors ? White American teens spend less time with parents Social competence training ? Teach social skills and self expression ? Group participation with popular adolescents The following information is important for answering questions from the Breakfast Club quiz Peer status ? girls ? Physical attractiveness ? Parental high SES ... makeup clothes ? Parental permissiveness ? Good social skills ? Popular with boys Peer status ? boys ? Athletic ability ? Coolness ? suaveness ? Toughness ... getting in trouble ? Middle-range academic performance Peer group hierarchy ? The alpha group -- most popular, but also insecure ? Wannabees -- insecure membership in their group ? Gamma group ? most health and positive self-image ? Social isolates ? lowest sense of self-worth
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