Schools By 1918, mandatory education laws were passed for the masses ? Required attendance to complete 8th grade The origin of compulsory education ? Agricultural decline ? Industrialization/ labor laws ? Urbanization ? Immigration Comprehensive high school ? Means of social control ? Assimilate immigrants ? Occupying unemployed adolescents ? Raise educational level.....raise living conditions School reform 1950 - 1990 Education in inner cities Social organization of schools ? Private vs. public schools ? Private schools more homework, ordered, disciplined, belonging ? Social capital Charter Schools School size ? Larger....more academic and extracurricular activity ? Smaller....belonging, participation, performance Middle school specifically for 7 and 8 graders Adolescent optimal school size 600-900 students Tracking ? Three types....inclusive, exclusive, meritocratic ? Pros and cons ? Self-fulfilling prophesy ? Race/ethnic background 1 Social promotion issue Mainstreaming The Carnegie Corporation Council on Adolescent Development The No Child Left Behind Act School desegregation ? Brown vs. Board of Education 1954 ? Pros and cons School climate.......most important school factor ? Authoritative environment School violence and number of students affected in public schools Beyond high school ? College bound The forgotten half ? Race/ethnic issue ? Apprenticeship programs ? Career counseling ? Job placement services 2
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