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what is the gravity of Mars like compared to that of earths?
weaker, easier to move around
What is the tilt of Mars?
25 degrees, this means there are seasons
What is the surface temperature of Mars?
max of 70 F but usually between -100 to -220 F
Why did Mars most likely lose its atmosphere that it once had?
because of the low gravity
What are Mar's polar ice caps made of?
dry ice and water/ice underneath
What do dust lanes on mars suggest?
that water was once present
How does the anti- green house effect affect mars?
Heat from Sun hits mars is reflected away because of the lack of atmosphere present
What do canal forms on Mars suggest?
water was once present
Volcanic flows on mars are inactive now, why?
What is the name of the "mother of all volcanoes" present on Mars?
What made Olympus Mons so big? Why?
Lava rose, erupted, then piled up on top of volcano because of low gravity
Volcanic plains contain "Calderas" what are these?
flat, broad, collapsed craters
What is topography of mars in the north hemisphere and the south hemisphere?
Northern-warmer, volcanic, more craters
What was the first superior planet?
How do the seasons of Mars compare to the seasons of Earth?
two times as long. south summer is shorter but hotter than north, south winter longer,
What is the eccentricity of Mars?
0.09. three times that of earths orbit
What happens to CO2 on Earth and on Mars?
on earth CO2 is recycled via photosynthesis,
on mars CO2 freezes as permafrost or on icecaps
How much of Mar's atmosphere is comprised of CO2
What evidence supports that dinosaurs were killed by asteroid impact?
Uretheum found on earth. not a naturally occurring element
What is terra-forming?
Altering a planets environment to create a climate simulating Earths
what is the gravity slingshot and how does it work?
use gravity of various planets as energy for movement, use of little fuel
Angular momentum affects the spin of Jupiter how?
larger the object, faster the spin. Jupiter is a huge planet so it spins very fast, 2 and a half times faster than the earth
Jupiter is made up of mostly.. ?
Jupiters core includes..
metallic hydrogen, surrounding an ice surrounding rock core. the metallic hydrogen conducts electricity which is why jupiter is electrically charged
Which planet is a "failed star" and why
Jupiter. 318 times more massive than earth, but 80 times too small to create nuclear fusion like the sun
How much energy do Jupiter and Saturn emit and how is this possible
roughly 2 times the amount they receive from the sun because of self-gravity-- compression of interior
Which planet has a "red spot" found over 350 years ago by galileo
Jupiter, 2 times the size of earth
Why does Jupiter rotate fast?
internal energy source makes strong convection currents
What are the stripes on Jupiter?
Rising Zones (warmer) and falling Belts ( cooler) material on the surface
Which planet has a different rotation rate for the poles and the equator
What is Jupiter's magnetic field like
20,000 times stronger than earth's due to convection in liquid metallic H2 interior
How big is Jupiter's magnetic field
up to 5 AUs away. near saturn
What is the largest moon in the solar system and whose moon is it
Ganymede. moon of jupiter
Name Jupiter's moons in order of rocky to icy
Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
Why are there volcanic eruptions on Jupiter's Moon Io?
gravitational tides from jupiter-- tidal effect
which moon-planet pair contain visible sulfer
Jupiter and moon Io
What moon has a thin oxygen atmosphere
Europa moon of jupiter, atmosphere contains ice rafts moving on liquid surface
How does Saturn differ from Jupiter
less massive, (same volume) (same density) 2x as far from the sun, less magnetic field
How far do saturn's ring extend?
2x saturn's raidus. within Roche Limit
Why can we see Saturn's rings from Earth but not the rings of other planets
because of the ice in saturn's rings. reflective and can be seen from earth
Which planet has the most moons? how many?
Saturn, 18 moons
What is the composition of Saturn's rings
dusty, icy, snowballs from about 1/1000 of an inch (dust particles) up to 10 yards. particles are stable and do not collide
Where do Saturn's small moons lie?
within the rings
What happens inside the Roche limit
any object without its own intrinsic gravity will break up inside, stuff with intrinsic gravity will not break up, moons cannot form, already formed moons will survice
What happens to particles inside Saturn's rings that are consistent with Saturn's orbit
they are ejected due to periodic gravitational interaction. those with differing orbits survive
Titan is a moon of which planet? What is the atmosphere like?
Moon of saturn, heavy atmosphere, icy and rock, methane present--blue glow, mostly nitrogen
How is Titan similar to Earth
composed of mostly nitrogen, oceans (ethane on titan), oxygen present but locked in ice
How was uranus discovered and by who
accident, william herschel
How was neptune discovered
mathematically, adams and levellier both knew something was interfering with uranus' orbit
what are some characteristics of Uranus
98 degree tilt, 84 year orbit, rotates somewhat backward, methane atmosphere, twin size to neptune, weak magnetic field
what is the great dark spot on neptune believed to be
hurricane, 10,000 kms long, cyclonic storm like red spot on jupiter
What is a moon of neptune?
Triton, rotates backwards, probably a captured Kuiper belt object
Which planet does not have a centered magnetic axis
How do Uranus and Neptune differ from Jupiter and Saturn
relatively thin atmospheres compared, more He, insufficient gravity--loss of H
What is occulation, which planets were discovered this way
when a stars light is covered by a planet-- lead to discovery of uranus and neptune
What is the smog on uranus and neptune composed of what
mainly frozen methane haze and clouds with ethane, acetylene
how do rings of uranus and neptune differ from those of saturn
made mainly of rock so barely visible from earth, unstable because of low gravity, therefore spiral into earth or space, also did not create there own moons
How many moons does uranus have
5 large, 10 small. miranda most important
What is thought of the moon Miranda
large oval structure, so might have shattered and reassembled
how many moons does neptune have
5 small ones followed by proteus and triton
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