Duccio: Virgin & Child Enthroned with Saints (front)
Duccio: Betrayal of Jesus
A work of art placed above or on top of an altar in a Catholic church. The altarpiece would serve as a backdrop for the elevation of the Host during Mass paintings on wooden panel or canvas, although they could also be sculptural.
Altarpieces were first commissioned in the thirteenth century, after the doctrine of transubstantiation
elevation of the host
The act of elevating the consecrated bread of the Eucharist during the mass An altarpiece often served as a backdrop to this action, providing a frame for the elevated host and, in some cases, underlining its significance
The person or corporate body that places an order for (i.e., commissions) a work of art or architecture Payment was based on the cost of materials, labor, and the quality of the workmanship
The atoning or making up for an offense committed against God or one's neighbor Enrico Scrovegni's Arena Chapel, in order to atone for his father's sin of usury
a fresco is a painting made on wet plaster with pigments suspended in water so that the pigments bond with the plaster as it dries, and the painting becomes part of the wall
"day's work" - the patch of intonaco applied each day, corresponding to the amount of painting that will be done that day- less intricate = more space covered in a day
panel painting techinique
1 Wooden frame and glue 2 Linen soaked then laid or molded into panel 3 Gesso grosso: coating of a coarse mixture of gypsum/animal glue 4 Gesso sottile: initial drawing is made 5 Gesso sottile layer: gold leaf applied/burnished 6 Final- egg tempra paint
The technique of applying thin sheets of gold (called gold leaf) to the surface of a painting or sculpture.
egg tempra paint
A binding medium* commonly used in early Italian Renaissance panel painting. In egg tempera, the particles of ground pigments are suspended in a liquid mixture consisting primarily of egg yolks
"gold-writing" - a pattern of gold lines used in Byzantine, and Italo-Byzantine art to suggest the highlighted ridges of drapery folds
A work of painting or sculpture (usally an altarpiece) consisting of four or more individual panels joined together.
describes the process for creating the illusion of three-dimensional form on a two-dimensional surface, usually achieved through a modulation between light pigments and dark pigments.
An Italian word literally meaning "light-dark." Chiaroscuro refers to the juxtaposition of light and dark pigments to represent light and shade in illusionistic painting - Giotto
The appearance of largeness or massiveness - achieved by isolating a figure against a background, by surrounding that figure with smaller objects or figures, or by keeping the figure simple in terms of colors or surface ornamentation - Giotto
Rendering a figure or object from an unusual point of view, so that its length appears compressed - "difficultà"
a term used in the Italian Renaissance to describe a feature in a painting or sculpture that involves special skills on the part of the artist Two parts - on part of the artist, and on part of the beholder to "decode"
13th and 14th centuries, incorporating features derived from Byzantine models such as chrysography and stylized, elongated faces.
layer of smooth plaster, applied to wall in patches called giornate
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