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A patient with pancreatitis would MOST likely present with pain that:
goes straight through to the back in the midline of the lower thoracic area
A neoplasm is MOST accurately defined as a:
Approximately one third of the body's platelets
are stored in the spleen
A patient with orthopnea
seeks a sitting position when short of breath
A patient with orthopnea:
experiences worsened dyspnea while lying down.
Which cranial nerve innervates the muscles that cause motion of the eyeballs and upper eyelids?
You are dispatched to a grocery store for a woman with severe abdominal pain. When you arrive, you find
the patient lying on her side in the manager's office. She is confused, is diaphoretic, and appears to be
bleeding from her vagina. Her blood pressure is low, and her pulse and respiratory rates are elevated. You
apply high-flow oxygen, visually inspect her vagina and cover it with sterile
dressings, keep her warm, begin transport, establish at least one large-bore IV en
route, and administer enough crystalloid fluid to maintain radial pulses.
A 68-year-old woman presents with an acute onset of confusion, shortness of breath, and diaphoresis. Her
blood pressure is 72/50 mm Hg, her heart rate is slow and weak, and her respirations are increased and
shallow. The ECG reveals a third-degree heart block at a rate of 38 beats/min. After placing the patient on
high-flow oxygen, you should:
immediately attempt transcutaneous pacing
A physiologic effect of sympathetic nervous stimulation includes
dilation of the bronchioles
Abnormal breath sounds associated with pneumonia and congestive heart failure are MOST often heard in
bases of the lungs
The clinical presentation of mononucleosis includes
fever, swollen lymph glands, and an enlarged spleen
Patients with glaucoma often complain of:
a blind spot toward the center of vision.
A patient with a unilateral eyelid droop when smiling
may be experiencing Bell palsy
You are assessing an elderly man who has asthma and uses an inhaled corticosteroid on a regular basis. He
has white patches on his tongue and the inside of his mouth. He is conscious and alert and his airway is
patent. You should:
provide supportive care and transport
Which of the following clinical signs or symptoms are MOST indicative of upper airway swelling in a patient
experiencing a severe allergic reaction?
Hoarseness and stridor
Bradycardia and hypotension following an overaggressive dialysis treatment are MOST indicative of:
Cor pulmonale is defined as:
right heart failure secondary to chronic lung disease
A positive Murphy sign is characterized by
a sudden stop in inspiration due to sharp pain when pressure is applied to the
right upper quadrant
are more susceptible to atherosclerosis and osteoporosis
Which of the following statements regarding the nasal septum is correct?
It may be slightly deviated to one side or the other.
A patient with prerenal acute renal failure would MOST likely present with
hypotension and tachycardia
Which of the following medications causes the MOST IgE-mediated drug reactions in the United States?
Within the cochlea, at the ______________, vibration stimulates hair movements that form nerve impulses
that travel to the brain via the auditory nerve.
organ of Corti
Drug abuse is MOST accurately defined as:
any use of drugs that causes physical, psychological, or legal harm to the user.
A 66-year-old man with chronic bronchitis presents with severe respiratory distress. The patient's wife tells
you that he takes medications for high blood pressure and bronchitis, is on home oxygen therapy, and has
recently been taking an over-the-counter antitussive. She further tells you that he has not been compliant
with his oxygen therapy. Auscultation of his lungs reveals diffuse rhonchi. What is the MOST likely cause of
this patient's respiratory distress?
Recent antitussive use
Commonly used antidepressants include all of the following, EXCEPT
A critical step when using a CPAP unit to treat a patient with severe respiratory distress is:
ensuring an adequate mask seal with minimal leakage
If the left ventricle contains 80 mL of blood before a contraction and ejects 60 mL during the contraction,
the ejection fraction is:
A prolonged PR interval:
indicates an abnormal delay at the AV node
If a patient complains of left lower quadrant abdominal pain, you should FIRST palpate the:
right upper quadrant
What is the pathophysiology of Meniere disease
Endolymphatic rupture creates increased pressure in the cochlear duct, which
then leads to damage to the organ of Corti and the semicircular canals.
A first-degree heart block has a PR interval greater than 0.20 seconds because:
each impulse that reaches the AV node is delayed slightly longer than expected
You are caring for a 44-year-old woman who was sexually assaulted by several men. She is conscious butvery quiet. Your partner, a female paramedic, quickly examines her and finds no immediate life-threateninginjuries. The patient tells you that all she wants to do is go home and take a shower. After multiple attempts to convince the patient to consent to transport, you are unsuccessful. Your MOST appropriate
action should be to
ask the patient if there is a friend you can call with whom she can stay.
Which of the following statements regarding vitreous humor is correct
Vitreous humor fills the posterior chamber and maintains the shape of the globe
Patients with epiglottitis present with:
Which of the following statements regarding leukemia is correct?
Leukemia is the result of abnormal white blood cell development
Frothy sputum that has a pink tinge to it is MOST suggestive of:
congestive heart failure.
Patients with delirium tremens often experience
What physiologic effect of anaphylactic shock is seen MOST commonly in patients with neurogenic shock?
A loss of balance and equilibrium suggests injury to the:
The main filter for blood in the kidney is the
Bile is stored in the _________ and is released into the __________, where it helps to _______.
gallbladder, duodenum, emulsify fats
Cardiovascular effects of anaphylaxis include
tachycardia, flushed skin, and hypotension
In the average female, the menstrual cycle lasts ___ days.
An elderly woman with COPD presents with peripheral edema. The patient is conscious but agitated. She is
breathing with slight difficulty but has adequate tidal volume. During your assessment, you note that her
jugular veins engorge when you apply pressure to her right upper abdominal quadrant. She tells you that
she takes a “water pill” and Vasotec for high blood pressure. You should:
suspect acute right heart failure and administer oxygen.
In contrast to somatic pain, visceral pain:
is difficult to localize
In adult patients, oral ingestion of a caustic substance
is usually intentional.
Common central nervous system manifestations of anaphylactic shock include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Atherosclerosis is a process in which:
plaque infiltrates the arterial wall, decreasing its elasticity and narrowing its
From an anatomic and physiologic perspective, inhaled toxins:
quickly reach the alveoli and rapidly gain access to the circulatory system.
The communicable period for HIV:
is largely unknown
The endocrine system comprises a network of ___________ that produce and secrete chemical messengers
Mittelschmerz is defined as
unilateral abdominal pain and cramping that occur during the ovulatory process
Which of the following differentiates an atrial rhythm from a sinus rhythm?
Varying shapes in P waves
While caring for an unresponsive young woman who was apparently sexually assaulted, you note that her
respirations are slow and shallow, her pulse is slow and weak, and her blood pressure is low. There is a
small amount of dried blood on her thigh, but no grossly active bleeding. Immediate care for this patient
maintaining her airway and providing ventilatory assistance
Unlike the patient with hypoglycemia, the patient with severe hyperglycemia:
is tachypneic and hyperpneic
Pelvic inflammatory disease MOST commonly affects
sexually active women.
Unlike exocrine glands, endocrine glands
release chemicals directly into the bloodstream
A sudden increase in end-tidal CO2 may be the earliest indicator of
return of spontaneous circulation.
A psychiatric emergency:
exists when a person's abnormal behavior threatens the safety and well-being of
himself or herself or others
The MOST common cause of Addisonian crisis is
abrupt termination of corticosteroid use
A marked decrease in urine output is called:
Mastication is defined as
If a 17-year-old woman with a gynecologic problem answers your question, “Is there any possibility that
you are pregnant?” with a firm “No way!” you should:
ask the patient why she is sure that she is not pregnant
You are assessing an unresponsive patient and note the presence of a hyphema to his left eye. This is
blunt force trauma to the eye.
Abdominal pain that is associated with polycythemia is usually associated with
an enlarged spleen
If water is not reabsorbed in the colon
A 70-year-old female dialysis patient presents with a headache. She is conscious and alert, has a blood
pressure of 190/100 mm Hg, has a pulse rate of 90 beats/min and regular, and has respirations of 14
breaths/min and regular. In addition to administering supplemental oxygen, you should
monitor her cardiac rhythm, transport, and start an IV line en route to the
Common signs and symptoms of a panic attack include all of the following, EXCEPT
a prolonged loss of consciousness
The primary role of cortisol is to:
assist with the body's response to stress
If the amount of pulmonary surfactant is decreased:
alveolar surface tension increases
A woman brings her 18-year-old son to your EMS station. The patient is actively seizing and, according to
the mother, has been seizing for the past 10 minutes. She states that her son has a history of seizures and
takes Depakote. The patient is cyanotic, is breathing erratically, and has generalized muscle twitching to all
extremities. You should:
open his airway and begin assisting his ventilations, establish an IV or IO line,
and administer 5 to 10 mg of diazepam.
When the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the cells do not respond to the effects of the insulin
that is produced:
glucose levels in the blood and urine will be elevated
The MOST effective ways to protect your patients from nosocomial infections include:
not reporting to work when you are sick and keeping the interior of the
ambulance clean and disinfected.
Which of the following is NOT an identified risk factor for suicide?
Hispanic woman older than 55 years of age
If a colorimetric ETCO2 detector turns purple during the exhalation phase through an ET tube,
approximately how much carbon dioxide is being exhaled?
Less than 0.5%
The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland secretes
antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
A patient with suspected meningitis involuntarily flexes her knees when her head is flexed toward her
chest. This is called:
Implantation of a fertilized egg within a fallopian tube
can cause severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage
A renal calculus that has become lodged in a lower ureter would likely produce all of the following signs
and symptoms, EXCEPT:
A 76-year-old woman with emphysema presents with respiratory distress that has worsened progressively
over the past 2 days. She is breathing through pursed lips and has a prolonged expiratory phase and an
oxygen saturation of 76%. She is on home oxygen at 2 L/min. Your initial action should be to:
place her in a position that facilitates breathing
Which of the following is NOT typically associated with leukemia?
Absence of fever
A patient with a history of asthma is at GREATEST risk for respiratory arrest if he or she
was previously intubated for his or her condition
Disorders of thinking include all of the following, EXCEPT
A patient with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less:
may require definitive airway control
An unresponsive patient with signs of anaphylactic shock
indicates cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbia
Pulse oximetry will not provide a true assessment of arterial oxygenation in patients with carbon monoxide
the device cannot determine whether carbon monoxide or oxygen is bound to
Common signs and symptoms of lymphoma include
night sweats and chills.
A pathologic Q wave
is wider than 0.04 seconds and indicates that a myocardial infarction occurred in
A rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscle groups that is commonly observed during a seizure is
called __________ activity
When the body's metabolic rate decreases
the thyroid gland secretes thyroxine
As multiple myeloma progresses, the patient would MOST likely experience
A patient with a medical condition that requires antiplatelet therapy would MOST likely be taking:
A synapse is:
a slight gap between nerve cells
A patient with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema should be positioned:
in a semi-Fowler's position
Unlike bacteria, viruses:
die when exposed to the environment
Organophosphates exert their effect by
stimulating the cholinergic nervous system.
A patient with thrombocytopenia:
has a decreased platelet count.
Acute renal failure is MOST accurately defined as
a sudden decrease in filtration through the glomeruli
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) is used to treat allergic reactions because it:
blocks the histamine effects at the H1 receptor sites.
Metabolic causes of abnormal behavior include
BP or PR that changes with body positions. May indicate hypovolemia, a common result of GI bleeding. To measure Orthostatic Vital signs:
Take pt's BP and PR while patient is supine
Then take BP and PR while patient is sitting
and last, take BP and PR while standing.
* WAIT at least 1 minute in between each position>
Consider a decrease in systolic pressure of 20 mmHg or more, or a pulse rate increase of 10 beats per minute or more, as positive for hypovolemia