Part I Introduction & Defining Deviance Adler & Adler I. Defining Deviance Deviance is the violation of norms Anything that falls outside of what is considered ?normal? A. What is deviant behavior? What is crime? II. Sumner?s (1907) classic definition of folkways, mores and laws Everyday norms based on custom, tradition, etiquette Examples: fashion norms, table manners, physical eye contact Violations are generally not seen as serious but may cause one to be viewed as odd or even avoided A. Folkways Moral norms based on social values Examples: interracial marriage, drug addition, extramarital relation Violations seen as more of a threat to social order, and the offender is seen as ?bad? and perhaps harmful to society and its institutions B. Mores Strongest norms since supported by formal code of sanctions Examples: murder, assault, rape, child pornography Violations may lead to imprisonment or even death C. Laws Smith & Pollack (1976) reformulate Sumner: crime, sin and poor taste: Crime violates laws, sins are acts that contravene religious values; Poor taste involves violations of informal folkways First, some acts overlap such as crimes of violence that are both deviant and illegal Second, much deviance such as obesity or unwed pregnancy are non-criminal Third, certain criminal violations, such as Martha Stewart?s case, or acts of civil disobedience, do not bring moral censure. Conclusion: crime and deviance overlap with independent dimensions D. Crime and deviance: Are they the same or different? III. ABCs of Deviance Being branded deviant for alternative attitudes or beliefs Examples: religious cult members, Satanists or political extremists such as terrorists. Mental illness also falls into this category. A. Attitudes Overt acts that are regarded as deviant Examples: violating dress or speech conventions, kinky sexual behavior, using drugs, or violent acts Achieved deviant status: people cast into deviant label for overt act B. Behaviors Seen as deviant for condition or quality that may be achieved or ascribed deviant status: Based on condition from birth about which the person can do nothing Examples: deviant socioeconomic status, the extremely poor or the very rich or having a congenital physical disability May also be achieved: Disfiguring oneself or getting full body tattoo C. Conditions IV. Three Categories of Ss During middle ages when religious paradigm prevailed, deviance viewed as religious disorder and sin attributed to satanic influence Exorcisms performed in order to exorcise demons from individual A. Sin Medicalization of deviance used to explain drug use, sexual misbehavior, homosexuality, etc: Use of medical treatment for responding to deviance B. Sick Certain behaviors seen as intentionally selected lifestyle choices or forms of recreation such as homosexuality, gambling, obesity C. Selected What are the differences between folkways and mores? What distinguishes one from the other? Discuss the ABCs of deviance in the context of obesity and homosexuality. Review Questions Part 1 Chapter 1 On the Sociology of Deviance Erikson I. Deviance and Boundary Maintenance for Communities Part 1: Ch. 1 Every community occupies a specific space in the world geographically and culturally, which marks it as a special place, a reference point for its members A community maintains boundaries in the sense that its members tend to confine and limit themselves to a certain range of conduct and behavior A. Communities are Boundary Maintaining Part 1: Ch. 1 Human communities maintain boundaries for the following reasons, to: retain a given pattern of consistent activity and behavior; make possible a degree of stability; retain cultural integrity A. Communities are Boundary Maintaining Part 1: Ch. 1 How do people learn about boundaries? How do they convey them to the next generation? The only ?material? for marking boundaries is members? behavior: The networks of social interaction and relationships between members Several rituals or behaviors may mark boundaries such as wars, religious or public ceremonies B. Marking and Publicizing Boundaries Part 1: Ch. 1 But the most critical for publicizing boundaries are those which take place between deviant persons and official agents of the community, including: Criminal trials & punishment (executions) Excommunication hearings Courts-martial Psychiatric determinations of sanity B. Marking and Publicizing Boundaries Part 1: Ch. 1 II. Communities Promote Deviance Part 1: Ch. 1 Over time there are changes in group structure and leadership Changes in the surrounding environment The new generation may challenge the old guard A. Boundaries are Not Fixed and Constant for the Following Reasons: Part 1: Ch. 1 Every public censure of a deviant act provides the community with opportunity to restate the group?s boundaries Given the utility of deviance for marking and reaffirming boundaries, does it make sense to assume that communities are organized to promote deviance? Consider that many of the institutions designed to discourage deviant behavior actually operate to perpetuate it: For example, prisons with high recidivism rates B. Deviance Serves a Positive Function for Community Part 1: Ch. 1 Commitment ceremonies such as trials are rites of passage for the offender which make it difficult for that person to avoid future deviance Involve formal stage of confrontation between society and the deviant Represent an announcement about the nature and limits of deviance Represent a more or less permanent change in a person?s status as deviant such as an ex-convict who is not trustworthy This sets up a circularity, a ?self-fulfilling prophecy? (Merton) B. Deviance Serves a Positive Function for Community Part 1: Ch. 1 How does society?s expectations of deviants lead to the ?self-fulfilling prophecy?? What are some valuable functions of deviants? Review Questions Part 1: Ch. 1 Part I Chapter 2 An Integrated Typology of Deviance Applied to Ten Middle-Class Norms Heckert & Heckert Part 1: Ch. 2 Part 1: Ch. 2 Part 1: Ch. 2 Part 1: Ch. 2 Part 1: Ch. 2 Part 1: Ch. 2 Part 1: Ch. 2 What are ?negative deviance? and ?rate-busting? in the context of middle-class norms? Discuss some of the middle-class values in the U.S. and provide examples of each. Review Questions Part 1: Ch. 2 Part I Chapter 3 Relativism: Labeling Theory Becker I. Labeling Theory of Deviance: A Definition Part 1: Ch. 3 Social groups create the rules whose violation constitutes deviance Those same groups apply their rules to persons labeled as outsiders A. Deviance is Created by Society Part 1: Ch. 3 Deviance is not an objective, inherent quality of the act a person commits, but the result of the application of rules and sanctions to an ?offender? A deviant is someone who has been successfully labeled as deviant B. Deviance is Relative Not Absolute Part 1: Ch. 3 II. Consequences of a Labeling Perspective for the Study of Deviance Part 1: Ch. 3 A person?s deviant status is the result of the responses of others to that person?s actual or presumed act The process of labeling is not infallible: Some persons may be innocent and wrongfully convicted of something they have not done Other persons may have escaped apprehension even though committing acts that could result in being labeled deviant A. Persons who have been labeled deviant do not represent a homogenous category Part 1: Ch. 3 Focus less on social characteristics of deviants than on the process by which they come to be viewed as outsiders and their reactions to being labeled The degree to which people respond to a given act as deviant varies widely One who commits an act may be responded to more leniently on one occasion than would have been the case at another time Examples: police target a specific area or crime for extra attention such as gambling or prostitution or a certain neighborhood B. Study the Process of Labeling Deviants Part 1: Ch. 3 Whether an act is responded to as deviant depends on who commits the act and who feels they have been harmed by it Juveniles from the middle-class do not go as far in the legal process as do boys from the lower class Race matters: a black man who allegedly attacks a white is more likely to be sought and punished B. Study the Process of Labeling Deviants Part 1: Ch. 3 There is a major change in one?s public identity, one acquires a new status that is a master status (Hughes) It becomes the single most important defining characteristic of a person that overrides all others: One is viewed as a deviant first and first foremost C. Being labeled as deviant has important consequences for the person?s future Part 1: Ch. 3 Part I Chapter 4 The Morality of Deviance Hendershott I. The Absolutist Perspective on Defining Deviance Part 1: Ch. 4 According to the sin-based model society is founded on consensus with most people agreeing about right & wrong Example: 9-11 terrorists considered deranged but not evil (Said) Part 1: Ch. 4 II. Moral Order Part 1: Ch. 4 From 19th-Century to 1960s: social stability founded on moral order ? a common world view that binds people to their families, communities, and to larger economic and political institutions Today: few sociologists hold such views Part 1: Ch. 4 Globalization has increased societies based on shared culture rather than on narrow calculations of individual self-interest A commitment to common moral order more difficult within a culture of strong individualism Part 1: Ch. 4 III. Moral Boundaries Part 1: Ch. 4 Testing the boundaries of established norms can be positive as well as negative Type of alienation occurs when social regulators begin to splinter, and controlling moral authority of society no longer effective (T.S. Eliot) Part 1: Ch. 4 Positive: 1950s & 1960s: identifying racism & bigotry as deviance led to social change in which discrimination was stigmatized and censured in legal system Negative: fail to acknowledge as deviant the increase in out-of-wedlock births and resulting in detrimental effect on black community (Moynihan) Part 1: Ch. 4 When an individual is caught between loosening moral norms regulating behavior and individual?s own moral misgivings Identification and stigmatization of deviant behavior functional for society, because it can produce certainty for individuals, and solidarity for group Dramatic social change through rapid redefinition of deviance can be dysfunctional for society The door is open for moral panics A. Anomie (Durkheim) Part 1: Ch. 4 Example An individual who does not recognize an extramarital affair as sinful but sees himself or herself as afflicted with a mental illness The loosening of moral codes of conduct on college campuses Part 1: Ch. 4 A. Anomie (Durkheim) Interviews with over 200 middle-class people Results: people unified by their increasing reluctance to judge the behavior of others Wolfe identified this as ?Eleventh Commandment: Thou Shalt Not Judge? Originally predicted 30 years ago by Rieff, who stated that ?psychological man? was replacing ?Christian man,? where former rejected idea of sin and need for salvation B. National Study of Attitudes & Values (Wolfe) Part 1: Ch. 4 IV. Moral Consensus Hard principles of moral consensus must be constructed Re-moralization of public discourse necessary in these difficult times where evil abounds Refusal to acknowledge and negatively sanction deviance exemplifies lost capacity to confront evil and dehumanize us all What are the implications of (re)defining deviance as disease or ?psychologizing? it? How does anomie lead to moral panics? Review Questions Part I Chapter 5 Social Power: Conflict Theory of Crime Quinney I. The Official Definition of Crime Part 1: Ch. 5 Crime is a legal definition created by the agents of the dominant class in power Crime is not inherent in behavior but a judgment made by some about others The greater the number of definitions of crime formulated and applied, the greater the amount of crime Part 1: Ch. 5 II. Formulating Definitions of Crime Part 1: Ch. 5 Definitions of crime are composed of behaviors that conflict with the interests of the dominant class, and include legal policies for the treatment of criminals Definitions of crime change as the interests of the dominant class change Part 1: Ch. 5 III. Applying Definitions of Crime Part 1: Ch. 5 Definitions of crime are applied by the class that has the power to shape the enforcement and administration of criminal law Criminal law is not applied directly by those in power, but its enforcement is delegated to legal agents; This results in some variation in how definitions will be applied Application of the law is also affected by communities? expectations of law enforcement and administration Part 1: Ch. 5 IV. How Behavior Patterns Develop in Relation to Definitions of Crime Part 1: Ch. 5 Behavior patterns are structured in relation to definitions of crime, and people engage in actions that have a probability of being defined as criminal Since it is not the quality of the conduct but the action taken against it that makes it criminal, the dominant class tends to exclude its own behaviors from such definitions Those who have been defined as criminal begin to think of themselves as criminal, increasing the likelihood they will continue to be defined as criminal Part 1: Ch. 5 V. Constructing an Ideology of Crime Part 1: Ch. 5 An ideology of crime is constructed and diffused by the dominant class to secure its hegemony The ideas about crime held by the dominant class are incorporated into the social views of crime and criminals Part 1: Ch. 5 VI. Constructing the Social Reality of Crime Part 1: Ch. 5 The social reality of crime is constructed by: the formulation and application of definitions of crime the development of behavior patterns in relation to these definitions the construction of an ideology of crime Part 1: Ch. 5 Part 1: Ch. 5 What is meant by the idea that crime is socially constructed? At what point is crime recognized as behavior that violates norms and laws? Review Questions Part 1: Ch. 5
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