Part II Theories of Deviance Adler & Adler I. Biological & Psychological Theories I. Biological & Psychological Theories A. Biological Theories Attributed Deviant Behavior to Biological Abnormalities & Predispositions Lambroso (1867/1920): Criminals like primitive beings resembling their ape-like ancestors; women inferior to men; deviant behavior innate Goring (1913) & Hooton (1939): Physical inferiorities (shorter) indicated criminal types Sheldon (1949): More active & muscular, more aggressive More recent: XYY syndrome creates ?double male? or ?super male? predisposed to violence II. The Structural Perspective Durkheim first advanced the view that society is a moral phenomenon Moral beliefs largely determine how people behave, their wants, and their identities Morality (norms, values, laws) are acquired in childhood A. Structural Functionalism: Durkheim (1900) Societies with high social integration (bonding and community involvement with others) generally have high conformity with little deviance Anomie occurs when people become distanced from each other, they lose a sense of belonging, and norms and values become ill defined Durkheim was concerned that social disintegration and anomie were more prevalent in modern society which was causing more deviance A. Structural Functionalism: Durkheim (1900) Yet Durkheim also subscribed to the view that deviance was functional for society Violations of norms gives rise to a social response of public outrage rooted in the collective conscience of moral belief This public response to deviance serves to remind people what is acceptable and what is not A. Structural Functionalism: Durkheim (1900) Summation: the structural perspective locates the root cause of deviance and crime outside of the individual in the invisible social structures of society Structuralists locate the causes of crime in two main factors: Differential opportunity structure Prejudice and discrimination toward certain groups Members of groups with less structural access to legitimate opportunities will have less effective means to succeed by conforming to morally approved ways A. Structural Functionalism: Durkheim (1900) Merton extended Durkheim?s ideas into strain theory Culture dictates success goals for all but institutional access limited to certain classes: American dream shared by all but only legitimately attainable by some B. Strain Theory: Merton (1938) Some of those excluded retaliate by choosing deviant alternatives The source of deviance lies in the social structure not the deviant individuals Anomie for Merton results from this contradiction in social structure B. Strain Theory: Merton (1938) Critical reformulation of Merton: he was correct that some groups have less opportunity for achieving success legitimately But he was wrong to assume that members of excluded groups could always choose deviance They suggest that not all disadvantaged persons have the same opportunity for participating in illegitimate activities C. Differential Opportunity: Cloward and Ohlin (1960) Three types of deviant opportunities are present: Criminal: arise from access to deviant subcultures Conflict: attract persons with propensity for violence Retreatist: persons (drug users) who seek to withdraw from society C. Differential Opportunity: Cloward and Ohlin (1960) Such opportunities are affected by several factors: Neighborhoods rife with crime, gangs, drugs Ethnic or racial people dominate certain illegal businesses or organizations making it easier for members of those groups to join A glass ceiling for women exists with men in leadership posts Conflict over definitions of deviance can occur between various groups based on economics, race/ethnicity, gender, religion, cultural identity, etc. C. Differential Opportunity: Cloward and Ohlin (1960) Structural but not functionalist view of deviance and crime Society is seen as pluralistic, heterogeneous, and conflictual Incompatible interests of diverse groups leads to conflict arising from these structural arrangements within society, including crime and deviance D. Conflict Theory Patriarchal structure of society responsible for the discrimination and oppression of women Patriarchy pervades culture, social structures and social institutions This includes laws, the family, the economy and political system, religion, the media and education. Women are systematically disadvantaged as a result and subject to verbal, physical and sexual abuse Feminists maintain theories of society and deviance are also male-centered E. Feminist Theory II. The Cultural Perspective Belief that deviance was a collective act carried out by groups of people Building on conflict theory?s view that multiple groups exist in society, subcultural theorists pointed to factions within and across such groups Each group has its distinct norms and values; it is its own subculture A. Subcultural Theory Overlap between American culture and subcultures suggests some parallels but not exact fit: Differences may lead to conflict Disparities and different cultural codes between subcultural groups likely to arise in three situations: (see next slide) B. Culture Conflict Theory: Sellin (1938) When people from one group ?migrate? or cross into another?s territory In a ?takeover? situation when one group invades another?s turf In ?border? areas where contact between members of two groups find themselves in occasional but regular contact B. Culture Conflict Theory: Three Situations Cohen in Delinquent Boys builds on subcultural conflict idea Focus on working-class teen males who develop subculture with a value system different from dominant American culture Lower class boys try but cannot succeed fulfilling middle-class expectations since they are ill equipped at meeting such different standards C. Reaction Theory: Cohen?s (1955) In response they develop a blockage, or strain, leading to ?status frustration? From this results an oppositionally reactive subculture based on non-utilitarian, malicious and negative behavior C. Reaction Theory: Cohen?s (1955) Lower-class subculture at odds with values of middle-class so that the young who conform to their own culture are likely to adopt behavior that will be seen as deviant Focal concerns of lower-class culture: Getting into trouble Showing toughness Maintaining autonomy Demonstrating street smarts Searching for excitement Fatalistic D. Lower-Class Culture Theory: Miller (1958) III. The Interactionist Perspective Left unaccounted for in the previous theories are the actual situational dynamics and interactional processes between macro structures and micro individuals Sutherland and Cressey posit the view that deviant behavior is socially learned A. Differential Association Theory: Sutherland and Cressey Most significant in this process of learning are the values, beliefs and norms of a person?s closest intimates: Family, friends, and others known well and respected As this circle of contacts shifts to a set of deviant values and norms, one is more likely to begin adopting and displaying deviant attitudes and acts as well A. Differential Association Theory: Sutherland and Cressey Movement into deviant subcultures occurs through a process of drift Old circle of associates is gradually left as one becomes enmeshed into new group As this process occurs, a person ?drifts? between deviance and conformity This may go on indefinitely for some time without one making a commitment to either B. Drift Theory (Matza, 1964) Drift between deviance and conformity may no longer be an option once one is publicly identified and branded as a deviant Labeling theory examines how people are defined as deviant, why some acts are ignored, and the circumstances surrounding the act of labeling and the consequences of so being labeled The key here is the interaction between society and the individual, and the consequences for the individual and society of that and subsequent forms of interaction C. Labeling Theory Focus on micro level, less on interaction, more on relationships between persons and society Reverse the question to be asked: Does NOT ask why people commit deviance: Deviance may not only be fun, but even offers shortcuts and tangible benefits Instead control theory asks: Why do people conform? What holds people back from committing deviance? D. Control Theory of Delinquency (Hirschi) Hirschi?s Answer: Social control resides in the extent to which people develop a stake in conformity, a bond to society Such persons will be less likely to risk loss of job, status, reputation, friends and family, and thus avoid deviance and conform willingly The more society is able to foster greater social bonds and a greater stake in conformity, the less deviance there will be D. Control Theory of Delinquency (Hirschi) How does feminist theory view deviance in comparison to conflict theory? Compare the structural-functional theory of deviance to that of the interactionist perspective. Review Questions Part II Chapter 6 Functionalism: The Normal & the Pathological Durkheim Part 2: Ch. 6 Crime is constant, though its form/content and extent varies Crime is increasing in modern societies (300% in France in Durkheim?s time) Crime therefore must be seen as a normal part of collective life and societies A. Durkheim: Crime Pervades All Types of Societies Part 2: Ch. 6 A society exempt from crime is impossible because of the very nature of crime. Crime is an act that offends strong collective sentiments (moral values) Since society is at root a moral order predicated on specific collective values, as long as those societies exist, certain acts will always potentially be offensive B. Durkheim: Crime is Normal & Necessary Part 2: Ch. 6 In order for a ?serious? crime such as murder to be eliminated, collective sentiments against it throughout society would have to become extremely strong Yet even as a ?serious? crime like murder was eliminated, those same increased collective sentiments would then become more intolerant of ?less? serious crimes such as assaults or robberies, and the cycle would continue B. Durkheim: Crime is Normal & Necessary Part 2: Ch. 6 Durkheim notes even a society of saints would have ?crime? although nothing we recognize: Crime would consist of minor, very trivial offenses Collective values cannot be shared to the same degree among all members of the group: There cannot be a society where every individual is identical in every possible way There will always be some group members less attached to certain values than are others; Some persons more willing to commit deviance B. Durkheim: Crime is Normal & Necessary Part 2: Ch. 6 Societies must be able to adapt to change and so be capable of change This means the collective sentiments must not be so rigid that their alteration would be impossible or social change could not occur Yet for crime to be totally eliminated, collective values have to be so absolutely rigid and universally adhered to as to make any social innovation impossible C. Durkheim: Crime is Functional Part 2: Ch. 6 Hence the function of crime: some acts offensive to collective sentiments today may become harbingers of a new, progressive moral order Durkheim cites the example of Socrates. Contemporary examples include acts of civil disobedience ? crimes at the time reflected in the civil rights movement and individuals such as Martin Luther King C. Durkheim: Crime is Functional Part 2: Ch. 6 According to Durkheim, why is crime impossible to avoid in societies? In what ways is crime thought to be functional within society? Review Questions Part 2: Ch. 6 Part II Chapter 7 Social Structure & Anomie Merton I. Patterns of Cultural Goals & Institutional Norms Part 2: Ch. 7 Two major elements The first defines goals, purposes & interests held as legitimate objectives for all or selected members of society Things ?worth striving for? ? basic component of design for group living (Linton) The second defines, controls & regulates acceptable means of attaining goals A. Social & Cultural Structures Part 2: Ch. 7 No society lacks governing codes of conduct but they do differ in degrees to which folkways, mores, and institutional controls are effectively integrated with goals in hierarchy of cultural values Technically most effective procedure takes precedence over institutionally prescribed conduct, which leads to an unstable society & hence what Durkheim termed anomie A. Social & Cultural Structures Part 2: Ch. 7 In sports: when winning becomes the ultimate goal Injuring the ?star? player; using illegitimate means to win In general: the accumulation of wealth as a goal in itself EXAMPLES Part 2: Ch. 7 The goal of monetary success is entrenched in American society The family, school & workplace join to provide intensive disciplining required to retain intact a goal that remains elusively beyond reach Thus, indoctrination of the idea of ?American Dream? & pursuit of lofty goals Cultural manifesto - ?not failure, but low aim, is crime? B. Money: An American Value Part 2: Ch. 7 Thus, acceptance of three cultural axioms: First, all should strive for same lofty goals since these are open to all Second, present seeming failure is but a way-station to ultimate success Third, genuine failure consists only in the lessening or withdrawal of ambition B. Money: An American Value Part 2: Ch. 7 Psychologically, these axioms represent: A symbolic secondary reinforcement of incentive Curbing threatened extinction of response through an associated stimulus Third, increasing the motive strength to evoke continued responses despite the continued absence of reward American culture heavily emphasizes wealth as a basic symbol of success, without a corresponding emphasis upon legitimate avenues to attain this goal B. Money: An American Value Part 2: Ch. 7 Sociologically, these axioms represent: Deflection of criticism of social structure onto one?s self Preservation of structure of social power by having individuals in lower social strata identify themselves with those at top Providing pressures for conformity with cultural dictates of unslackened ambition by threat of less than full membership B. Money: An American Value Part 2: Ch. 7 II. Types of Individual Adaptation Part 2: Ch. 7 Most common and widely diffused Includes acceptance of cultural goals and institutional means Continuity and stability of society depends on this A. Conformity (+ / +) Part 2: Ch. 7 Brought about by cultural emphasis on success-goal idea Occurs when individual has assimilated cultural emphasis upon goal without equally internalizing institutional norms governing ways and means for its attainment B. Innovation (+ / -) Part 2: Ch. 7 Involves abandoning or scaling down of lofty cultural goals of great success & rapid social mobility to where one?s aspirations can be satisfied Rejects cultural obligation to attempt ?to get ahead in the world,? but continues to abide almost compulsively by institutional norms Examples: ?I?m not sticking my neck out? ?I?m playing it safe? ?Don?t aim high and you won?t be disappointed? C. Ritualism (- / +) Part 2: Ch. 7 Least common In society, but not of it Includes rejection of cultural goals and institutional means Examples: vagrants, psychotics, outcasts, drunks, drug addicts Individual escapes from society that they find frustrating D. Retreatism (- / -) Part 2: Ch. 7 Individual seeks to bring a new or greatly modified social order Presupposes alienation from reigning goals and standards E. Rebellion (± / ±) Part 2: Ch. 7 According to Merton, what is a blocked opportunity structure? What other ways do groups adapt to their balance of means and ends? Review Questions Part 2: Ch. 7 Part II Chapter 8 Differential Association Sutherland and Cressey Part 2: Ch. 8 Criminal behavior is learned Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups Part 2: Ch. 8 Differential Association When criminal behavior is learned, the learned includes (a) techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very complicated, sometimes very simple; (b) the specific direction of motive, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes Part 2: Ch. 8 Differential Association The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law Part 2: Ch. 8 Differential Association Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning Part 2: Ch. 8 Differential Association While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values It is not explained by those general needs and values, since noncriminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values. Part 2: Ch. 8 Differential Association Part II Chapter 9 Control Theory Hirschi I. Elements of the Bond Refers to an individual?s bonds to others Attachment to others part of why we do or do not care about norm violations If one does not care about the expectations of others, he or she is free to deviate A. Attachment Part 2: Ch. 9 Investment of time, energy, self in a certain pursuit: Getting an education, building up a business, acquiring a reputation Risking the loss of such investments by deviance or crime and facing punishments (time in prison) seems irrational The concept of commitment assumes that the organization of society is such that most persons interests would be endangered if they engaged in crime B. Commitment Part 2: Ch. 9 Involvement in conventional activities limits time, energy and opportunity to engage in deviant or criminal activity; ?Idle hands are the devil?s workshop? Example: recreational programs and facilities to reduce juvenile delinquency C. Involvement Part 2: Ch. 9 Control theory assumes existence of a common value system within a society or group Individual belief in set of values is variable: the greater a person?s acceptance of moral authority for a set of norms, the less like they are to violate them Control theory differs from cultural deviance theory in this assumption of consensus within a society or group over a set of values D. Belief Part 2: Ch. 9 What kind of deviance and delinquency does Hirschi focus on and what are some of his assumptions? How does his theory differ from structural perspective(s) of deviance? Review Questions Part 2: Ch. 9 Part II Chapter 10 Feminist Theory Chesney-Lind Construction of explanations of female behavior that are sensitive to its patriarchal context Examines ways in which agencies of social control (the police, the courts, and the persons) act in ways to reinforce a woman?s place in male society It would first and foremost be sensitive to the situations of girls. Negative example: women?s movement causing increase in women?s crime Part 2: Ch. 10 I. Toward a Feminist Theory of Delinquency Data show that girls are more likely to be referred to court by non-law enforcement agencies (including parents and family) This holds true for status charges (in which girls are overrepresented) as well II. Criminalizing Girls? Survival Part 2: Ch. 10 Girls may be trying to escape parents and families for several reasons: Parent?s double standard of behavior at home may become a source of tension Girls are more likely to be victims of child sexual abuse, which may occur at home Studies of girls on the streets, or in legal custody, show high rates of physical/sexual abuse Studies of adult women in prison who show high rates of childhood physical/sexual abuse including rape II. Criminalizing Girls? Survival Part 2: Ch. 10 A feminist theory of female delinquency would recognize these facts: Girls may have more reason to run away from home than boys Patriarchy means the abusers (family) can call authorities to apprehend and/or punish those daughters/victims Girls are more likely to be defined as sexually desirable Once on the streets, their lives are shaped by patriarchal institutions that devalue women, such as prostitution Girls and women get caught in a vicious cycle of victimization, delinquency and crime II. Criminalizing Girls? Survival Part 2: Ch. 10 Why is a feminist theory of deviance necessary? How do agents of social control reinforce a female?s place in a male-dominated society? Review Questions Part 2: Ch. 10 Part II Chapter 11 The Constructionist Stance Best I. The Emergence of Constructionism: Roots in Two Developments Part 3: Ch. 12 Show how social life shapes everything people know Introduce term ?social constructionism? to wide audience, which implies that problems are assigned particular meanings via social interaction A. Berger and Luckmann?s (1966) work on the sociology of knowledge Part 2: Ch. 11 Conflict theorists charged it ignored how elites shape deviance definitions Feminists charged it ignored women?s victimization by men Gay rights activists and others argued they were political minorities, not deviants B. Labeling theory, dominant approach to studying deviance in 1960s, criticized Part 2: Ch. 11 II. The Constructionist Response Part 2: Ch. 11 Some labeling-oriented sociologists began to move away from the study of deviance Kitsuse led several in study of how and why specific social problems emerged as topics of public concern Redefined social problems as claims by certain interest groups or claims-makers that a particular set of social conditions were a problem The Constructionist Response Part 2: Ch. 11 III. The Return to Deviance Part 2: Ch. 11 Constructionists? study of social problems still reflected themes of deviance: Construction of rape, child abduction, illicit drugs, family violence Many studies traced rise of social problems on national level such as War on Drugs Others looked at how problems were translated into action by police officers, social workers, and others Example: The way police and the courts construct and label perpetrators and victims of family violence The Return to Deviance Part 2: Ch. 11 IV. Constructionism?s Domain Part 2: Ch. 11 Today this approach is an influential stance for the study of deviance at macro and micro levels, and for how and why particular forms of deviance emerge as a concern It emphasizes the interpretive work whereby various persons assign meaning and make sense of behavior as deviant Constructionism?s Domain Part 2: Ch. 11 What are the advantages of studying social problems? What does the constructionist perspective emphasize and how does it differ from other perspectives of deviance? Review Questions Part 2: Ch. 11
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