Part VII Structure of the Deviant Act Part 7 This section investigates the characteristics of deviant acts All deviant acts consist of purposeful behavior intended to accomplish a desired end, require the coordination of participants (when more than one), and depend on individuals reacting flexibly to unexpected events that may arise Deviant acts fall along a continuum of sophistication and organizational complexity Introduction Part 7 I. Types of Deviant Acts Part 7 Some deviant acts may be accomplished by one individual without need for interaction with others For example, illicit drug users, stutterers, transvestites, the depressed, the obese, and the homeless Individual deviance overlaps with but is different from loner deviance since loners may have victims: rapists, murderers, embezzlers, obscene phone callers Turvey?s study (Chapter 38) of sexual asphyxia illustrates such deviance A. Individual Acts Part 7 Involves cooperation of at least two voluntary participants Usually involves the transfer of illicit goods such as pornography, arms, drugs or provision of illegal services in sexual or medical realm B. Cooperatives Part 7 One or more persons force interaction on an unwilling party of one or more persons or an act initially entered into cooperatively results in one party setting the other up In both cases the core relationship is one of hostility with one persons getting the more favorable outcome These include kidnapping, blackmail, theft, fraud, arson, trespassing, assault Chapter 41 deals with college rape Chapter 42 deals with fraud victimization C. Conflict Acts Part 7 Part VII Chapter 38 Autoerotic Sexual Asphyxia Turvey Part 7: Ch. 38 Autosexuality or autoeroticism may be defined as masturbation and other forms of self-gratification Autoerotic fatality may be defined as any death that occurs as a result of autosexual behavior Yet every autoerotic death is unique due to highly personalized scripts and failure to appreciate this fact will lead to failure of forensic pathologist to recognize autoerotic fatalities Part 7: Ch. 38 As with all sexual behavior the appeal of autoerotic behavior is sexual pleasure Some forms of autoerotic behavior are also dangerous, for example, autoerotic asphyxia Autoerotic asphyxia has two sources of pleasure: physical and psychological A. Why? Part 7: Ch. 38 The physical arises from reduction of oxygen to the brain, hypoxia, producing a euphoric and semi-hallucinogenic state of pleasure sufficient enough on its own Psychological source is more personal and this makes generalization more difficult but pleasure is best understood as residing in the fantasy A. Why? Part 7: Ch. 38 Typical autoerotic asphyxia fantasies seem to be fueled by masochistic/cordophilic aspects of the behavior which can be highly pleasurable without hypoxia as is the case for most bondage and masochism What can be seen and understood of the fantasy by the pathologist is the object required to fulfill it which varies in each individual case: pornography, women?s undergarments, even a John Deere tractor! A. Why? Part 7: Ch. 38 Many common myths about autoerotic fatalities due to social fear & social ignorance Parents or loved ones may alter the victim scene to mislead investigators to avoid embarrassment & to protect victim?s dignity after death Some investigators may have moral objections or fail to recognize the act for what it is Persons who die while engaging in autoeroticism are not guilty of a crime in almost all states B. Myths Part 7: Ch. 38 One myth is that autoerotic deaths are the result of teenage boys in puberty experimenting with sexual self-discovery in acts that go wrong such as accidental hangings C. Myth #1 - Age Part 7: Ch. 38 The largest study of autoerotic deaths (Hazelwood et al, N = 132) found male deaths to be distributed across the age spectrum: 37 were teens, 42 between ages 20-29, and 28 between ages 30-39. Only three African Americans and one Hispanic were in this population, but not as teens; all were males Example: 47-year-old dentist who was found on his office floor with an anesthesia mask over his face and his pants unzipped: educated and mature but still a victim of his own autoerotic pursuit C. Myth #1 - Age Part 7: Ch. 38 ?Autoerotic fatalities occur only in men? This view is rooted in a patriarchal, sexist view of women as persons who do not seek sexual pleasure for themselves While male autoerotic deaths tend to outnumber those of females, they do exist The possibility must be recognized since women like men do enjoy autoerotic activities such as masturbation D. Myth #2 - Gender Part 7: Ch. 38 ?Nudity, or partial nudity, is always a feature in autoerotic deaths? While often the case, nudity is not a necessary feature of autoerotic deaths There are many documented cases of autoerotic fatalities that do not have a feature of nudity E. Myth #3 - Nudity Part 7: Ch. 38 ?Most autoerotic deaths are characterized by transvestitism? Transvestitism refers to recurrent and persistent cross-dressing by a heterosexual male for no reason other than sexual excitement for the cross-dressing behavior F. Myth #4 - Transvestitism Part 7: Ch. 38 The best data does not support the claim that most autoerotic deaths involve transvestitism Hazelwood et al report that while 20% of their sample was cross-dressed at death, most of this was not transvestitism but instead use of female articles for masochistic value They estimate in fact that only about 3.9% of the sample were actual transvestites F. Myth #4 - Transvestitism Part 7: Ch. 38 Evidence of a physiological mechanism for obtaining or enhancing sexual arousal that provides a self-rescue mechanism or that allows victim to voluntarily discontinue Reasonable expectation of privacy Evidence of solo sexual activity G. Object Criteria for Autoerotic Fatality Part 7: Ch. 38 Evidence of sexual fantasy aids Evidence of solo sexual activity Evidence of sexual fantasy aids Evidence of dangerous autoerotic practice No apparent suicidal intent G. Object Criteria for Autoerotic Fatality Part 7: Ch. 38 Determining the manner of death explains how the cause of death came about Natural, homicide, suicide, accident or undetermined Determining how a person died can be problematic for the medical examiner and is an opinion based upon the known facts of the situation H. Manner of Death Part 7: Ch. 38 Autoerotic fatalities are by definition accidental deaths and not suicides Yet there is some misunderstanding on this point by some who consider autoerotic death as a suicide, since it was a voluntary act However, the victim?s death is an unintentional accident in the pursuit of sexual pleasure and not an act of suicide by any acceptable legal definition of the term H. Manner of Death Part 7: Ch. 38 What are some of the myths of autoerotic asphyxia in the context of age & gender? Why do individuals engage in this deviant behavior? Review Questions Part 7: Ch. 38 Part VII Chapter 39 Trading Sex for Crack: Gender & Power Draus & Carlson ?Crack? or ?rock? cocaine drug-use trend had broad impact on American society in the late 20th-century Originally in coastal urban areas like NYC, LA & Miami and by late 1980s, throughout the US Most destructive effects within poor urban communities Some disturbing trends related to sexual violence (rape, physical attacks on women by men) Part 7: Ch. 39 The focus of this piece is the interrelationship of: crack cocaine use sexual behavior social context through an examination of beliefs & experiences surrounding sexual behavior Among recent crack cocaine users living in small towns in central Ohio Part 7: Ch. 39 I. The Study Part 7: Ch. 39 Ethnographic research spanning three years in conjunction with a five-year epidemiological study In-depth qualitative interviews & focus groups conducted with 97 individuals (N = 97) Most participants were active & former drug users, with some as family members or counselors Ages 18 and over Participants compensated $20 each A. Setting & Method Part 7: Ch. 39 II. Crack & Sex: Drug Effects & Gender Part 7: Ch. 39 Myth dispelled that use of crack cocaine causes people to become more sexually active, sometimes the opposite occurs A few participants admitted to formal prostitution Others made reference of ?tricking? or turning tricks for crack ?Hooking up? is the informal practice of exchanging sex for crack Men view ?sex-for-crack? in matter of fact way A. Crack & Sex Part 7: Ch. 39 III. Crack-Sex Negotiations Part 7: Ch. 39 Crack-sex exchanges generally entail intense bargaining & implicit or explicit coercion; Sometimes threats of physical violence Sometimes women try to get out of performing sexually even though they are provided with crack Most often, this doesn?t work A. Bargaining Part 7: Ch. 39 IV. Sex-Crack & Violence Part 7: Ch. 39 Crack-related sexual encounters often involve threats or actual violence Some women reported being attacked Appears that men have a hard time taking ?no? for an answer The gender domination is present in most sex-for-crack exchanges Sometimes women are kidnapped & raped A. Sex & Violence Part 7: Ch. 39 V. Dope Boys & Sugar Daddies Part 7: Ch. 39 Crack dealers or ?dope boys? are in a powerful position to demand sex, especially when women don?t have the money to purchase crack A. Dope Boys Part 7: Ch. 39 These men provided women with money they then used to buy crack Generally, sugar daddies were older men, usually white B. Sugar Daddies Part 7: Ch. 39 VI. Lure of Sex, Lure of the Drug Part 7: Ch. 39 An informant states that when men get high (on crack) they want sex, when women get high, they don?t Sometimes women were able to skillfully exert their own power by manipulating men The woman might tell a man I?ll ?do it? for a few minutes, but if you don?t get off by then, I?m quitting A. Lure of Sex Part 7: Ch. 39 Power over women is most certainly part of the drug?s appeal, especially among those who sell it B. Lure of the Drug Part 7: Ch. 39 VII. The Game Turns on You Part 7: Ch. 39 Sex-for-crack exchanges, especially for dealers, is more about power than sexual attraction For others, especially men who smoke crack with women, they ?always want something? This can be used by women to limit her involvement (sexually) with men ? maximizing her return Sometimes men were ?getting used? and women, like men, attempt to get the most out of the exchange A. Power Dynamics Part 7: Ch. 39 What do the findings of this study imply in the context of gender & power as it relates to crack cocaine use? Which gender gets the short end of the stick, if you will? Review Questions Part 7: Ch. 39 Part VII Chapter 40 Show Me the Money: Cybershrews & Online Money Masochists Durkin The Internet has provided a fertile deviant opportunity structure Hacking: unauthorized intrusion into a computer system or network Fraud & other deceptive practices are common on the Internet; examples include: Stock manipulation Misappropriation of credit card information Investment swindles Online auction fraud Cyberstalking, harassing Threatening electronic communications Part 7: Ch. 40 I. The Study Part 7: Ch. 40 Analysis of website content over period of four years, plus 500 printed pages Collected from homepages, message forums, Yahoo groups, user profiles & blogs Author stumbled on topic ? ?money mistress? offering services looking for ?money slaves? Data collection strategy included snowball sampling with use of Internet sites used for information as opposed to individuals Data analyzed for common themes, characteristics & tendencies A. Methodology Part 7: Ch. 40 II. Money Slavery Part 7: Ch. 40 Money slavery: involves males giving money or gifts to women they meet online in exchange for being degraded, humiliated or blackmailed Described as ??ultimate depiction of economic dehumanization? Some Internet sites where participants can be found: The Real Money Slaves Money Slaves 101 Cash Fetish Money Slaves Fellowship Forum Part 7: Ch. 40 Request various forms of remuneration from men in order to obtain ongoing contact Commonly require them to send ?tributes? electronically or by credit card or Pay Pal Many have an ?initiation fee? or ?introductory tribute? before men are made money slaves Some require that men pay off a bill each month (rent, car, electric, phone, etc.) Some might request men buy them items from computerized ?wish list? A. Money Mistresses Part 7: Ch. 40 Some men give exorbitant amounts of money to women: One woman?s website shows copy of $50,000 wire transfer Copies of $17,000 credit card receipts Little evidence that any physical meetings ever occur between money slaves & money mistresses Blackmail services: man fills out online application with name, address, telephone number of girlfriend, wife or employer as well as other discrediting information Money slave is required to pay mistress to avoid having information revealed A. Money Mistresses Part 7: Ch. 40 Chastity belt program: money slave buys device & sends mistress key. In turn, he is required to pay a fee to have key returned to him Other ?services? include purchases of: Used panties ($75) Locks of her hair ($100) Worn socks ($45) Phone sex calls ($9.99 per minute) One money slave reported paying $330 for a conversation A. Money Mistresses Part 7: Ch. 40 Sexual interests seem to motivate the money slaves Psychological pain appears to be important to many masochists. Pain encompasses: Feeling of helplessness Subservience Humiliation Degradation Money slaves reported being sexually aroused by making payments B. Money Masochists Part 7: Ch. 40 III. Social Control & Money Slavery Part 7: Ch. 40 Social control plays an important part in phenomenon of money slavery These practices are ripe with opportunities for fraud, deception & deceit Money mistress may not reciprocate for money or gifts received Money masochists may be deceived by using photos of other women Gender can also be disguised on the Internet Part 7: Ch. 40 To protect their interests money slaves formed the Money Slaves Fellowship Forum & Find Fake Money Slaves to share information on detecting & avoiding frauds Money masochists also engage in deceptive practices by not paying for services such as Web cam views or chat time Money mistresses create ?losers? or ?fakers? lists exposing identities of nonpaying money masochists Money masochists are also rewarded for paying by being thanked on mistresses? websites, etc. Part 7: Ch. 40 Paying for sexual fantasy is not new, but phenomenon of money slavery appears to be novel manifestation of this type of deviance predicated on existence of the Internet Primary contact between mistress & slave takes place via Internet Money slavery entails presentation & consumption of images Money mistress is a character who exists in cyberspace A. Discussion Part 7: Ch. 40 How is money slavery similar ? as well as different from ? traditional forms of (sexual) deviance? What kinds of social control strategies do money mistresses implement to keep money masochists in line? Review Questions Part 7: Ch. 40 Part VII Chapter 41 Sexual Assault on Campus Armstrong, Hamilton, Sweeny A 1997 NIJ study estimated from 1/5 to 1/4 of women are victims of completed or attempted rape while in college From 1/2 to 3/4 of sexual assaults on college campuses involve alcohol use on part of victim, perpetrator, or both Alcohol and sex assault link suggests many assaults are ?party rapes? Part 7: Ch. 41 While college-universities have been aware of problem of sexual assault for at least 20 years, rates of sexual assault have not declined Why do colleges-universities remain dangerous places for women? In what follows, sexual assault is seen as predictable outcome of both gendered and gender neutral processes operating at individual, organizational and interactional levels Part 7: Ch. 41 Three main types of explanation: (1) Psychological or individual determinants: Sex assault seen as a consequence of perpetrator or victim characteristics, like gender role attitudes, personality, family background, or sexual history (2) A ?rape culture?: Sex assault seen as result of widespread belief in rape myths or ideas about men, women, sexuality that fosters a pro-rape environment (3) A social context approach that identifies certain settings such as fraternities or bars as sexually dangerous places and grounds such assaults in organizations that provide resources and opportunities A. Approaches to College Sexual Assault Part 7: Ch. 41 I. The Study Part 7: Ch. 41 This study develops third approach by linking it to recent scholarship in the sociology of gender (Martin, 2004; Risman, 1998, 2004; Lorber, 1994) Argues that gender is embedded not only in persons, but also in cultural rules, social interaction, and organizational arrangements This integrated approach emphasizes socialization produces gendered selves, cultural rules reproduce gender inequality in interaction, and organizational practices reproduce gender inequality at institutional level Part 7: Ch. 41 Data are from group and individual interviews, ethnographic observation, and public information collected at a large Midwestern research university Most data collected during 2004-05 academic year in a residence hall known as a ?party dorm? Authors and research team assigned to a room on a floor occupied by 55 women students A. Methods Part 7: Ch. 41 Individual characteristics that generate interest in college partying and gendered sexual agendas resulting in high-stakes competition over erotic status: B. Selves & Peer Culture in the Transition from High School to College Part 7: Ch. 41 General agreement among students that one was ?supposed? to party in colleges, a way to feel part of college life Females reported wanting to fit in, be popular and have friends C. Non-Gendered Characteristics Motivate Participation in Party Scenes Part 7: Ch. 41 Partying was primary way to meet men on campus and some complained they lacked friendly contact with men compared to mined-gender friendship groups in high school Meeting men at parties very important to most women and they found men?s sexual interest as parties to be a source of self-esteem and status Enjoying dancing and kissing men at parties, proved that men ?liked? them D. Peer Culture as Gendered and Sexualized Part 7: Ch. 41 Women worked hard to attain physically attractive presentation through exercise, tanning, dieting, buying new clothes Women found that achieving high erotic status in party scene required looking ?hot? but not ?slutty? resulting if successful in looking ?classy? Men also sought proof of their erotic appeal; Men were more interested that they were in having sex reflecting traditional double-standard D. Peer Culture as Gendered and Sexualized Part 7: Ch. 41 Sexual danger is an unintended consequence of many university practices intended to be gender neutral The clustering of homogenous students intensifies the dynamics of student peer cultures and heightens motivations to party E. University & Greek Rules, Resources & Procedures Part 7: Ch. 41 Residence halls rules push student partying off-campus into bars, residences and fraternities Male control of fraternities results in their control of all aspects of parties at their houses: Themes, music, transportation, admission, access to alcohol and movement of guests Party themes encourage women to wear scant, sexy, clothing and place women in subordinate positions E. University & Greek Rules, Resources & Procedures Part 7: Ch. 41 Peer culture and organizational arrangements set up risky partying conditions but do not explain how student interactions at parties generate sexual assault Party rape is the result of fun situations that shift, gradually or suddenly, into coercive situations F. Production of Fun & Sexual Assault Interaction Part 7: Ch. 41 College partying involves predictable activities in a predictable order, and shared assumptions about good or adequate participation Fun partiers throws themselves into the event, drink, display upbeat mood, and evoke revelry in others; Partiers are expected to like and to trust party-mates Cultural expectations of partying are gendered: Women, but not men, wear revealing outfits and women cede control of turf, transportation, and liquor, and are expected to be nice in ways men are not F. Production of Fun & Sexual Assault Interaction Part 7: Ch. 41 As a result, women become vulnerable to sexual assault, which too many men are willing to exploit Significant number of narratives collected from subjects of study in which sexual assault or probable sexual assault occurred Many women appear uncertain and unwilling to define many acts as assaults due to effects of alcohol, and a desire to preserve their status with peers as popular F. Production of Fun & Sexual Assault Interaction Part 7: Ch. 41 The frequency of women?s negative experiences in the party scene poses a problem for those students most invested in it: Finding fault threatens their identities and lifestyles The majority of heterosexual encounters at parties are fun and consensual Females reported loving to flirt and be admired G. Student Responses & Resiliency of Party Scene Part 7: Ch. 41 Many male and female students account for the harm to women in the party scene by blaming victims their ?mistakes? Avoiding criticism of party scene or men?s behavior Hence only ?immature,? ?na´ve,? or ?stupid? women get into trouble Even women who have been assaulted may tend to blame themselves (drinking too much alcohol) rather than the perpetrator G. Student Responses & Resiliency of Party Scene Part 7: Ch. 41 Why is there still a tendency to blame the victim of sexual assault and rape for drinking too much as opposed to the perpetrator? Review Questions Part 7: Ch. 41 Part VII Chapter 42 Opportunity Structures for White-Collar Crime Engdahl Opportunity is a central component in white-collar crimes Sutherland (1983) initially studied criminality among upper social classes Says it was made possible by ?positions in power? White-collar crime: people who help positions in ?respectable? or had ?high social status? (Sutherland) Criminality had to do with misuse of position in order to commit crime Part 7: Ch. 42 Occupational crime or corporate crime Focus on crimes that occur through & on behalf of companies Or are committed by virtue of position that accrues to a person in his/her professional role Part 7: Ch. 42 I. Barriers As Opportunity Structures for White-Collar Crime: An Empirical Example Part 7: Ch. 42 Example of barrier concept: Broker at firm loses $1 million of client?s money & attempts to hide it for four years After four years, it totals to $21 million, and cannot be hidden. The fact that broker could hide it for so long from client & firm?s other employees exemplifies that accounts were permeated with barriers that obstructed suspicion & detection of crime Referred to as financial self-interest, low priority of control & interpretative primacy A. Background Part 7: Ch. 42 Relations between broker & client were informal & involved oral agreements in person, nothing in writing Client gave broker (loose) instructions such as ?do the deals you think are good? Client regarded broker as knowledgeable & felt he was exploiting broker for his business savvy Perceived broker to be highly reliable Client-broker relationship became friendly while financial interests took backseat B. Financial Self-Interest Part 7: Ch. 42 Broker considered a ?pro? strongly interested in ?generating profits? and ?demanding? He quickly rose to higher positions within the firm & by virtue of his position was able to ?get away? with his blunder (i.e., losing $21 million for client) B. Financial Self-Interest Part 7: Ch. 42 Another reason why broker had opportunity structure Client was involved in multiple deals & needed someone to assist him Client allowed broker to carry out deals in certain areas & didn?t pay close attention to account statements Referred to as absence of capable guardians One reason why control is deficient & creates opportunities for crime C. Low Priority of Control Part 7: Ch. 42 This is where differences in knowledge give certain actors interpretative primacy, enabling them to make major mistakes, while others take advantage of that knowledge gap Broker?s job was very complicated & his own knowledge was matched by ignorance from clients, colleagues, chiefs & other people related to his work. This further created opportunities for broker to commit crime without being detected D. Interpretative Primacy Part 7: Ch. 42 What gives rise to white-collar crimes? What is the goal of white-collar criminality in the context of social positions? Review Questions Part 7: Ch. 42
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