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All ofthe following properties allow erythrocytes to function as gas carriers except:
A group of cells is isolated in the laboratory. The cellshave membrane-bound granules in their cytoplasm, and they show phagocyticactivity. Which of the following cells is most similar?
The predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the:
Which of the following types of white blood cells containpreformed granules of vasoactive amines?
Monocytes are blood cells that mature (differentiate) into:
In addition to playing a role in hemostasis, platelets havethe ability to:
The main site of hematopoiesis in the fetus is the:
A 45-year-old female undergoes splenectomy to remove atumor. Which of the following is most likely to occur following surgery?
During an infection, lymph nodes enlarge and become tenderbecause:
After birth, red blood cells are normally made only in the:
A cell that can differentiate into any tissue type isreferred to as:
Which of the following participate in hematopoiesis?
Hemoglobin contains heme groups that allow it to carryoxygen. How many oxygen molecules can one molecule of hemoglobin carry?
_____ is an unstable type of hemoglobin that cannot bindwith oxygen.
The greatest proportion of total body iron is located inthe:
Recycled iron from macrophages is delivered to the bonemarrow bound to:
Erythropoietin is produced in the:
Secretion of erythropoietin is stimulated by:
After erythrocytes have circulated for about 120 days, theyare removed by macrophages, which are mainly in the:
Which electrolyte is necessary for normal platelet function?
Which of the following nutritional components is needed forerythropoiesis?
A newborn baby is diagnosed with a blood disorder in whichher platelet count is low. Which of the following could be the reason?
Which of the following molecules is the insoluble endproduct of the clotting cascade?
Fibrinolysis is mediated by:
A newborn baby has a clotting disorder that results in herbody being unable to produce thrombin. Which of the following phases ofplatelet degranulation would be impossible?
In some anemias, the erythrocytes are present in varioussizes; this is referred to as:
A newborn is diagnosed with congenital intrinsic factordeficiency. From which of the following types of anemia does he suffer?
Erythrocytes that are _____ contain an abnormally lowconcentration of hemoglobin.
A 5-year-old male was diagnosed with normocytic-normochromicanemia. Which of the following anemias falls into this category?
What hemodynamic change occurs after initial compensationfor a reduction in the number of circulating erythrocytes?
A 25-year-old female has a heavy menses during which sheloses a profuse amount of blood. Which of the following adaptations could beexpected?
A 60-year-old female emphysema patient experiences a rapidand pounding heart, dizziness, and fatigue with exertion. How would therespiratory system compensate for the increased oxygen demand?
A 2-year-old malnourished child has vitamin B12 and folatedeficiencies. A blood smear would reveal _____ amounts of hemoglobin.
A 45-year-old male is diagnosed with pernicious anemia. Themost likely cause of this condition is:
Which of the following statements explains why vitamin B12and folate deficiencies cause anemia?
A 20-year-old female undergoes lab testing for anemia.Results show high iron, bilirubin, and transferrin and low hemoglobin andhematocrit. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 35-year-old female is diagnosed with vitamin B12deficiency anemia. A decrease in which of the following is the most likelycause?
Which of the following individuals is at highest risk fordeveloping a vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?
A 50-year-old male experienced loss of appetite, weightloss, and beefy red tongue shortly before his death. Autopsy would most likelyreveal:
A 40-year-old male vegetarian is diagnosed with folatedeficiency anemia. He reports that he is an alcoholic. Which of the followingfactors put him at greatest risk for developing his disease?
The Schilling test for pernicious anemia involves:
A 67-year-old female has chronic gastrointestinal bleeding.The primary cause of her anemia is:
A 34-year-old male presents in the emergency room withextreme fatigue and shortness of breath. His skin and sclera appear to have ayellowish discoloration. These findings are consistent with which type ofanemia?
A 58-year-old female presents in the clinic with complaintsof fatigue, weight loss, and tingling in her fingers. Laboratory findings showa low hemoglobin and hematocrit, a high mean corpuscular volume, and normalplasma iron. These findings are consistent with which type of anemia?
Which of the following tests directly measures iron stores?
A 21-year-old female was recently diagnosed with irondeficiency anemia. In addition to fatigue and weakness, which of the followingclinical signs and symptoms would she most likely exhibit?
A 21-year-old woman was recently diagnosed with iron deficiencyanemia. Her hematocrit is 32%. Which of the following treatments would youexpect to be prescribed for her?
A 45-year-old male is diagnosed with sideroblastic anemia.Which of the following is the most likely cause of this disease?
A 50-year-old female was diagnosed with sideroblasticanemia. Which of the following would most likely occur?
Aplastic anemia is caused by:
All of the following pathogenic mechanisms cause anemia inchronic inflammation except:
Posthemorrhagic anemia can result in death when blood lossis in excess of
A 57-year-old male presents to his physician for red face,hands, feet, ears, and headache and drowsiness. A blood smear reveals anincreased number of erythrocytes, indicating:
A 67-year-old female is admitted to the emergency room witha diagnosis of polycythemia vera. She will most likely complain of:
A 68-year-old female is admitted to the emergency room witha diagnosis of polycythemia vera. Her symptoms are mainly the result of:
A 67-year-old female is admitted to the emergency room witha diagnosis of polycythemia vera. Treatment for her condition might involve:
A 70-year-old male is brought to the emergency room, wherehe dies shortly thereafter. Autopsy reveals polycythemia vera. His death wasmost likely the result of:
A 67-year-old male was diagnosed with polycythemia vera butrefused treatment. His condition is at risk for converting to:
Leukocytosis can be defined as:
A 35-year-old male was diagnosed with hepatitis B. Furthertests revealed neutropenia characterized by a neutrophil count less than _____per milliliter.
A 20-year-old female has an increase in eosinophils. Whichof the following is the most likely cause?
A 15-year-old female presents with splenomegaly,hepatomegaly, and lymph node enlargement. She is diagnosed with infectiousmononucleosis. Further testing would indicate an acute infection of:
A 35-year-old male with hyperthyroidism begins treatment todecrease thyroid activity. Which of the following could result secondary to thetreatment?
A 15-year-old male is diagnosed with infectiousmononucleosis. The most likely cause is:
A 15-year-old male with infectious mononucleosis is beinggiven instructions on how to prevent the spread of this infection to others.Which statement represents a correct instruction?
A 15-year-old male is diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis.He most likely presented with the classic triad of symptoms: fever, sorethroat, and:
Known causes of acute leukemia include:
A 10-year-old male is diagnosed with leukemia. Which of thefollowing could be associated with his disease?
A 5-year-old female is diagnosed with acute leukemia. Shewill most likely be treated with:
Multiple myeloma can be defined as a neoplasm of:
A 65-year-old male is diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Hecomplains of severe pain. This pain can be attributed to:
A 35-year-old female is diagnosed with lymphadenopathy. Themost likely finding leading to this diagnosis is:
A 35-year-old male has enlarged lymph nodes in the neck anda mediastinal mass. He was diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma. Which of thefollowing abnormal cells would be expected with this disease?
The country with the lowest rate of Hodgkin lymphoma is:
A 62-year-old female tells her health care provider she hasbeen experiencing regular night sweats that cause her to wake up drenched. Shealso remarks that she has been unintentionally losing weight. Physical examreveals enlarged lymph nodes on her neck that do not appear to be painful. Sheshould be screened for which of the following cancers?
A 10-year-old male presents with abdominal swelling, nightsweats, fever, and weight loss. He is diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma. Which ofthe following is the most likely cause?
Under the conditions of hypersplenism, erythrocytes are:
Thrombocytopenia may be:
Thrombocytopenia is described as a platelet count below_____ platelets per cubic millimeter.
A 30-year-old female presents with hematuria, menorrhagia,and bleeding gums. She is diagnosed with immune thrombocytic purpura (ITP). Themost likely cause is:
A 50-year-old female is diagnosed with primarythrombocythemia. A blood smear reveals _____ platelets
A 52-year-old male IV drug user was diagnosed with hepatitisC 5 years ago. He is now experiencing impaired blood clotting. A decrease inwhich of the following could be the cause?
Individuals with liver disease often suffer from coagulationdisorders because:
A 40-year-old female develops disseminated intravascularcoagulation (DIC). The most likely cause of this condition is:
The sequence of events in disseminated intravascularcoagulation (DIC) is initiated by the release of:
In DIC, active bleeding occurs after intravascular clottingbecause:
A 22-year-old female just delivered a healthy baby girl. Shesuffered from eclampsia during her pregnancy, and on the second postpartum dayshe complained of bleeding gums and bruising on her arms and legs. Hematologylab tests indicate that she had DIC. Further testing revealed an increase in:
A common, life-threatening complication of a thrombus in adeep vein is:
A 1-year-old female is diagnosed with anemia secondary toinsufficient erythropoiesis. The most likely cause is:
Iron deficiency anemia:
A 12-month-old toddler weighing 18 pounds is brought to theclinic because of weakness, slow physical growth, and developmental delays. Hismother reports that the only food he will consume is cow's milk. Consideringthis information, the nurse decides that the child probably has:
A 16-month-old female presents with tachycardia, pallor,anorexia, and systolic murmur. Hemoglobin determination indicates a contentbelow _____ g/dl.
Maternal-fetal blood incompatibility may exist in which ofthe following conditions?
A 22-year-old female gives birth at 20 weeks' gestation to astillborn fetus. Physical exam reveals gross edema of the entire body andanemia. This condition is referred to as:
Sickle cell disease is characterized by the presence of HbS. Which of the following amino acids is present in Hb S and not present innormal Hb?
A 10-year-old male is diagnosed with sickle cell anemia. Hemost likely inherited it from:
In the United States, sickle cell disease most commonlyoccurs in:
A 25-year-old female has a child that is diagnosed withsickle cell anemia. She does not have the disease. Which of the followingcharacterizes the genetic makeup of the parents with regard to this trait?
The erythrocytes of a person with sickle cell anemia maybecome sickled if:
A 12-year-old male is diagnosed with sickle cell anemia. Ablood smear reveals severely sickled cells. The sickled cells will be removedfrom circulation mostly by the:
A major symptom of vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cellanemia is:
The type of sickle cell crisis seen only in young childrenis
A 6-year-old male presents with fatigue, jaundice, andirritability. A blood smear shows the presence of sickled cells. Erythropoiesisis compromised in this child, resulting in a(n):
A 5-year-old female dies from sickle cell disease. The mostlikely cause of death is:
The alpha and beta thalassemias are inherited in an _____fashion.
A 2-year-old male presented with growth and maturationretardation and splenomegaly. He died shortly after arriving at the ER. Autopsyrevealed thalassemia secondary to defective:
A 38-year-old female gives birth to a stillborn fetus.Autopsy reveals cardiomegaly, hepatomegaly, edema, and ascites. The most likelycause is:
Hydrops fetalis may result from which type of thalassemia?
The mother of a 3-year-old child speaks to the pediatricianbecause the child took several hours to stop bleeding following a minor scrape.Testing reveals that the child has hemophilia A resulting from a deficiency in:
Hemophilia B is also known as:
A 3-year-old child presents with bruising on the legs andtrunk and a petechial rash. The mother also reports frequent nosebleeds. Labtests reveal a decreased platelet count. The most likely diagnosis is:
A 5-year-old male is diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocyticpurpura (ITP). This condition is caused by:
Which of the following clusters of symptoms would lead youto suspect a child has idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)?
A 1-year-old is diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenicpurpura (ITP). The most serious concern is development of:
The most common childhood cancer is:
A 5-year-old male is diagnosed with leukemia. Which of thefollowing symptoms would be expected?
A 10-year-old male with Down syndrome undergoes chemotherapyfor cancer. Following treatment, he is most susceptible to:
A 10-year-old female is diagnosed with a malignancy in thebrain and lung. DNA analysis reveals translocation at chromosome 7 and 14. Themost likely diagnosis is:
Which condition increases the risk of developing malignantlymphoma?
A 30 year old female presents with HTN, HA, Tachycardia,impiared glucose tolerance, and weight loss. Which of the following is the mostlikely dx?
A 60 year old male presents to his physician complaining ofchest pain. He is dx with atherosclerosis. The dz is cx by?
In general, atherosclerosis is cxed by?
Foam cells in a fatty steak are?
Normal blood pressure of adults age 18 or older is:
Most cases of combined systolic and diastolic HTN have noknown cx and are dx as ______HTN
A 30 year old Caucasian female was recently dx with primaryHTN. She reports that she eats fairly well, usually having red meats andpotatoes daily. She also reports that her father has HTN as well. Which of thefollowing risk factors is most likely associated with this dx?
A 65 year old male presents for a routine checkup. A BPcheck reveals a systolic pressure of 160mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of 70 mmHg. Which of the following is the most likely cx of this type of pressureelevation?
A 55 year old has undiagnosed HTN. She presents to herphysician complaining of impaired vision and chronic edema. Lab tests revealthat she also has renal insufficiency. The most likely cx for these findings?
The rapid onset of malignant HTN resullts in:
Orthostatic hypotension refers to a drop in BP when with:
A 50 year old male is dx with orthostatic hypotension. Whichof the following would he most likely experience?
A 65 y/o female presents to ther ER c/o difficultyswallowing and SOB. A CT scan would most likely show an aneurysm in the:
A 60 y/o male is dx with cerebral aneurysm. The most likelyarea for it to occur is the:
A detached blood clot is called a:
A 32 y/o female presents with lower leg pain and redness. Anultrasound reveals venous thrombus. Which of the following could have cx hercondition?
A 28 y/o female presents with severe chest pain and SOB. Sheis dx with a PE, which most likely originated from the:
Individuals with Raynauds dz have severe sx under which ofthe following conditions?
A 75 y/o obese female presents to her physician c/o edema inthe lower extremities Physical exam reveals that she has varicose veins. Whichof the following is a possible cx?
A 52 y/o males presents with pooling of blood in the veinsof the lower extremities and edema. The most likely manifestation of thisdisorder is?
Superior vena cava syndrome is a progressive ______ of thesuperior vena cava that leads to venous distention of the upper extremities andhead.
A 50 y/o male with a 30 yr hx of smoking was dx withbronchogenic ca. He developed edema and venous distension in the upperextremities and face. Which of the following is the most likely dx?
A 52 y/o female is dx with coronary artery dz. She would beexpected suffer from myocardial:
A 50 y/o obese male with HTN and CAD visits a nutrionalistfor food conseling. He is told that ___ fats raise LDL and lower HDL levels andshould be avoided.
The most common cx of myocardial ischemia?
A 53 y/o male presents with recurrent chest pain onexertion. He is dx with angina pectoris. The pain he experiences occurs when:
A 51 y/o male is at his health clinic for an annual physicalexam. After walking from the car to the clinic, he developed a substernal pain.He also reported discomfort in his left shoulder and jaw, lasting 2 to 3 minsand then subsiding with rest. He indicates that this has occurred frequentlyover the past few months with similar exertion. He is most likely experiencing:
A 49 y/o male presents to his physician c/o chest pain. EKGreveals ST elevation. He is dx with myocardial ischemia. Which of the followinginterventions would be most beneficial?
A 68 y/o male presents to the ER c/o chest pain. He has a hxof stable angina that now appears to be unstable. He most likely has:
A 55 y/o male died of myocardial infarction. Autopsy wouldmost likely reveal:
Cardiac cells can withstand ischemic conditions for____before irreversible cell injury occurs
A 60 y/o female had a myocardial infarction. She was broughtto the hospital 30 mins later. She survived but now has impaied ventricularfunction because:
A 75 y/o male has severe chest pain and dials 911. Lab testsat the hospital reveal elevated levels of creatinine phosphate and lacticdehydrogenase. These elevated levels indicate :
A 28 y/o female presents to the ER complaining of severechest pain that worsens with respiration or lying down. She has a fever,tachycardia, and a friction rub. The most likely cx of these sx is:
A 56 y/o male presents to his physician for a checkup.Physical exam reveals edema, hepatomegaly, and muffled heart sounds. Which ofthe following is a concern?
A 42 y/o female is dx with constrictive pericarditis. Shewould also have a decreased cardiac output because of:
Many valvular stenosis and regurgitation disorders in adultshave a common etiology. Which of the following can result in both types of whatvalvular dz?
In valvular _____, the valve opening is constricted andnarrow because the valve leaflets, or cusps, fail to open completely.
A 67 y/o female was previously dx with rheumatic heart dz.Tests reveal lipoprotein deposition with chronic inflammation that impairsblood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta. Which of the following isthe most likely dx?
A 60 y/o female was dx with mitral stenosis. As a result,she has incomplete emptying of the:
A 72 y/o female has a hx of HTN and atherosclerosis. An echoreveals backflow of blood into the left ventricle. Which of the following ismost likely the dx?
A 35 y/o male presents with pulmonary HTN. Testing revealshe is in heart failure. Which of the following is the most likely dx?
The most common cardiac valve dz in the united states, whichtends to be the most prevalent in young women is:
A 10 y/o male presents with fever, lymphadenopathy,arthalgia, and nose bleeds. He is dx rheumatic heart dz. The most likely cx ofthis dz is:
A 10 y/o male presents with fever, lymphadenopathy,arthalgia, and nose bleeds. He is dx with rheumatic heart dz. This dz isusually characterized by:
A 30 y/o female presents to her physician with fever,cardiac murmur, and petechial skin lesions. She is dx with infectiveendocarditis. The most likely cx of her dz is:
Inflammatory cells have difficultly limiting thecolonization of microorganisms in infective endocarditis because:
A 50 y/o male visits the cardiologist for an EKG. Resultsindicate he has no PR interval and a variable rate QRS with rhythmirregularity. Which of the following is the most likely dx?
A 65 y/o male with a hx of untreated HTN is now experiencingleft heart failure. The mist likely reason is:
A 59 y/o female is dx with left ventricular failure. Thedecrease in kidney perfusion would ultimately cx:
A 68 y/o female is experiencing left heart failure. Physicalexam reveals elevated blood pressure most likely cx by:
A 65 y/o male is dx with chronic pulmonary dz and elevatedpumonary vascular resistance. Which of the following heart failures generallyresults from this condition?
A 72 y/o female has a hx of right HF cx by right ventricularmyocardial infarction. Which of the following sx are specifically r/t her RightHF:
High output failure occurs with:
When a person is in shock, impairment in cellular metabolismis cx by:
One consequence of switching from aerobic to anaerobiccellular metabolism during shock state is:
During shock status, glucose uptake is usually:
A 50 y/o male was admitted to the intesnive care unit with adx of acute myocardial infarction. He is being tx for shock. His cardiopulmonarysx include low BP, tachycardia and tachypnea. His skin is pale and cool. Theprimary cx of his shock is most likely:
An 82 y/o female was admitted to the hospital with confusionand severe hypotension. Her body's compensatory mechanisms are increased heartrate, vasoconstriction, and movement of large volumes of interstitial fluid tothe vascular compartment. What kind of shock do you suspect?
A 27 y/o male is admitted to a neurologic unit with a completeC-5 spinal cord transection. On inital assessment, he is bradycardic,hypotensive, and hyperventilating. He appears to be going into shock. The mostlikely mechanism of his shock is:
Neurogenic shock can be cx by any factor that inhibits the:
For an infection to progress to septic shock, which of thefollowing must occur?
A 20 y/o female is being admitted to the hospital with feverand septic shock. Which set of clinical manifestations would you expect her toexhibit?
The hypotensive state seen in septic shock can cx:
The most common cx of multiple organ dysfucntion syndrome(MODS) is:
A 75 y/o female has been critically ill with MODS for longerthan a week and has developed a severe oxygen supply and demand imbalance. Thestatement that best describes this imbalance is:
Which organ of the body is often the first to fail in ptswith MODS?
An 8-week old infant presents to his pediatrician for awell-baby check up. Physical exam reveals a murmur and an ECG confirms a ventricularseptum defect. Which of the following genetic factors would most likelyaccompany this dx?
A newborn child experiences hypoxia and cyanosis. The mostlikely dx is congenital heart defect cx a ____ shunt
A newborn is dx with pulmonary stenosis. Which of thefollowing intrauterine factors could have cx this defect?
A 40 y/o pregnant women is concerned about the health of herunborn child. She has phenylketonuria (PKU) and recently had a viral infection.The child is born with a congenital heart defect, which of the following is themost likely based on the mother's hx?
Coarctation of the aorta is the local narrowing of the aortanear the:
A newborn is suspected of having coarctation of the aorta.Which of the following assessments would aid in dx?
A newborn child’s dx with trisomy 18. Which of the followingcongenital heart defects will she most likely have?
A 1-month old infant visits her physician for a well babycheck. Physical exam reveals decreased cardiac output, hypotension,tachycardia, and loud murmur suggestive of aortic stenosis. Which of thefollowing would be expected with this dx?
A newborn develops a murmur and cyanosis shortly afterbirth. She is dx with pulmonary stenosis after an ECG revealed narrowing ofthe:
The patent opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery ina fetus is called the:
A 2 wk old infant presents with poor feeding, fatigue,dyspnea, and a murmur. She is dx with a patent ductus arteriosus. Thiscondition results in a:
An infant under goes an Echo for a suspected heart defect.Tests reveal an opening in the middle of the atrial septum. This defect isreferred to as:
The most common type of congenital heart defect is:
A newborn experiences frequent periods of cyanosis. An echoreveals that the tricuspid valve failed to develop and no blood flows betweenthe right atrium and right ventricle. This condition is referred to astriscuspid:
Which of the following statements best describes totalanomalous pulmonary venous connection?
A newborn baby is severely cyanotic. An echo revealstransportation of the great arteries. Which of the following occurs with thisdefect?
A 1 month old infant was dx with trucus arteriosus with aventricular septal defect. Which of the following would also be expected?
A 22 y/o pregnant female presents for a fetal echo. Testsreveal small left atrium and mitral valve and an absent left ventricle andaortic valve. This defect is:
A 1 y/o female with a ventricular septal defect isexperiencing CHF. Which of the following will most likely occur?
A 3 y/o Japanese male is dx with Kawasaki dz. Which of thefollowig is most likely the cx:
A 5 y/o female is found to have HTN during three seperatevisits to her physician. Lab tests reveal that the HTN is secondary to:
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