living organisms arise from preexisting living cells.
The controversy of spontaneous generation
was finally put to rest by
the first to cultivate anthrax bacteria outside the body using blood serum at body temperature
explicitly implicated _______” to be the causative agent of the disease, validating the germ theory of disease.
Pure culture of this bacteria should be isolated upon
The isolated bacteria when inoculated into experimental animals should be able to cause same disease with similar symptoms as the initial disease.
Able to isolate the same bacteria in pure culture once again from the experimentally diseased tissue.
1)Protective normal flora
2) Cause disease: Flu, sore throat, periodontal
3) Important in our environment
4) Useful in food, beverage, biotechnology and other industries.
______ - some viruses have this, like a cover around,
made up of lipid bi-layer
_____ - outer shell , made up of identical proteins
_____ - contains genetic material, RNA or DNA
Many viruses have a ______for particular organs/tissues/specialised cell types
appropriate cell transcription factors to switch on viral genes, and/or cell enzyme pathways to produce viral
proteins = “________”
by damaging/killing cells outright
by inducing immuno-pathology
by transforming cells cancer
sugars,alcohols,proteins,lipids,and polysaccharides y.
oxidation of ____, _____, _____, ______, ______ provides them with a source of energy.
an etiological agent of fungal infection of the oral cavity. It causes ________
The classic form is marked by the presence of creamy white _____ on an erythematous base. can usually be removed by scraping, revealing the bleeding base beneath.
are one-celled animals (unicellular) found worldwide in most habitats, most prevalent in tropics. Most species are _______, but all higher animals are infected with one or more species
______ (10% of world's population)
-No _____ reservoir
-Uncommon in ____
Risk groups include travelers, recent immigrants and male homosexuals
____% of infections, major reservoir
Protozoan disease: Flask-shaped ulcers (large intestine)
In debilitated, immunosuppressed, pregnant Liver Abscesses
Trophozoites full of _____
more rarely lung, brain and spleen abscesses, with time
________ - Most virulent; in tropical Africa, Asia and S. America
______ - Occurs worldwide in tropics/some temperate areas
______ - Found rarely worldwide
______ - Usually is self-limiting; only in sub-Saharan Africa
•_______, ranging in size from ____ microns.
•Highly variable in shape and _______ needs. •________ organisms.
��Lack a distinct _______
Distributed throughout the world in every ______ habitat.
N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)
NAG and NAM
Gram positive cell wall:
Peptido-glycan” Polymer (_____+______) Unique to bacteria, containing Sugars;
__________ (____) N-acetylmuramic acid (____) Hard to break down .
Amino acids cross link ______&_____
Important in maintaining _____ of the bacteria, adds rigidity and strength.
Gram-negative cell wall:
More _______, both structurally and chemically.
_____ peptidoglycan layer (5-10% by weight)
Outer membrane is made up of ______ and the most important component, _____, is located in the outer most layer of the membrane.
& 6 fatty acids
These organisms do not stain with ______
. Outer cell wall layers of these bacteria contains
unusual ______ besides peptidoglycan layer
Bacterial cells have three architectural regions: ________ – in the form of flagella and pili.
________ – consisting of a capsule, cell wall and plasma membrane.
_________ – contains the DNA, ribosomes and other inclusions.
________ use carbon dioxide as a sole source of carbon for growth .
baxteria that live at very cold temperatures (zero degrees or lower)
Those which flourish at room temperature (25 degrees) or at the temperature of warm-blooded animals (37 degrees)
Bacterial number doubles after certain period of time, called “________”.
Foreg.,bacterium with a generation time of 20 minutes, meaning the time required for bacteria to double.
If we start with 100 bacteria,we will have ____ at the end of one generation time.
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