In ARDS, increased alveolocapillary membrane permeability is caused by:
E. a, b, c are correct; platelet-activating factor (PAF), oxygen-free radicals, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
Type II pneumocyte damage causes:
D. decreased surfactant production
Pulmonary edema may be caused by abnormal:
E. a, b, c are correct; capillary hydrostatic pressure, capillary oncotic pressure, capillary permeability
In bronchial asthma:
A. bronchial muscles contract
Asthma is precipitated by which of the following inflammatory mediators? more than one answer is correct
A, B, C, D are correct; histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, neutrophilic infiltration
E. None of the above are correct
Chronic bronchitis: more than one answer may be correct
B, C; is caused by air pollutants, exhibits a productive cough
Which is inconsistent with pneumonia?
B. involves only interstitial lung tissue
Tuberculosis: More than one answer is correct
A,B,D are correct; is caused by an aerobic bacillus, may affect other organs, antibodies may be detected by a skin test
Pulmonary emboli usually: more than one answer is correct
A, B,D are correct; obstruct blood supply to lung parenchyma, originate from thrombi in the legs, occlude pulmonary artery branches
D. both A and C are correct; occurs when left arterial pressure is elevated, shows right ventricular hypertrophy on an electrocardiogram
A, B, C are correct; occurs in response to long-standing pulmonary hypertension, is right heart failure, is manifested by altered tricuspid and pulmonic valve sounds
A lung cancer characterized by many anaplastic figures and the production of hormones is most likely:
B. small cell carcinoma
The metastasis of lung squamous cell carcinoma is:
Rapid onset of malignant hypertension results in?
55 year old female has undiagnosed hypertension. She presents to her physician with impaired vision and chronic edema, lab tests reveal that she also has renal insufficiency. The most likely cause for these findings is:
end organ damage
10 year old female develops pneumonia following a urinary tracts infection, physical exam reveals subcostal and intercostal retractions, she reports that breathing is difficult and she feels she cannot get enough air... diagnosis is?
20 year old male presents with complaining of difficulty breathing when lying down, this is referred to as?
paroxymal nocturnal dyspnea generally occurs with
left ventricular failure
20 year old male is in acute pain, an arterial blood gas reveals decreased carbon dioxide levels. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
group of mountain climbers experiences confusion, tachycardia, edema and decreased renal output after climbing a mountain, caused by ?
decreased inspired oxygen
the most common cause of pulmonary edema?
left heart failure
65 year old male recently had a cerebrovascular accident that resulted in dysphagia. He now has aspiration of gastric contents . This could cause:
pneumonitis and pneumonia
80 year old female develops pneumonia in the hospital, she become cyanotic, tachycardic, and develops a fever and cough. Chest xray reveal pus in the pleural space. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
60 yr old female with emphysema is having difficulty expiring in a given volume of air, she is most likely experiencing ____________ pulmonary disease.
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