A drug that binds to the inactive state of receptor molecules and decreases constitutive activity
natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological or psychological effects
changes a drug so it can be excreted
Once in circulation, some percentage of the drug will be attracted to the protein in circulation and attach to form a reversible bond.
sympathomimetic vs. sympatholytic/sympathoplegic drug
large macromolecular assemblies through which both mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted. They can be considered as sub-cellular macromolecules that mediate the regulatory effects (e.g. cell anchorage) of ECM adhesion on cell behavior.
They serve as the mechanical linkages to the ECM, and as a biochemical signaling hub to concentrate and direct numerous signaling proteins at sites of integrin binding and clustering
Calcineurin inhibitor. Cyclosporine binds to the intracellular protein cyclophilin in T cells. Cyclosporine-cyclophilin complex inhibits Calcineurin, which inhibits activation of transcription factor NF-AT--> no IL-2 production.
Class: Calineurin inhibitor/ Immunophilin ligand
MOA: binds to immunocyclin and causes a down reg of calcineurin which usually stimulates IL2, IL3, and INFgamma production
Indications: Organ transplant, GVHD, autoimmune diseases
S.E.: renal dysfunction, hypertension, and neurotoxicity
Class: Gonadal Hormone Antagonists
MOA: estrogen receptor antagonist, PROPHYLATIC
SE: INCREASES HYPERPLASIA AND NEOPLASIA, vomiting, hot flashes, vaginal bleeding, and venous thrombosis
short, repeated sequences of DNA (TTAGGG) present at the linear ends of chromosomes that are important for ensuring complete replication of chromosomal ends and for protecting chromosomal termini from fusion and degradation. When each cell replicates a
small section of the this is not replicated
an endocytotic process used by phagocytes in which cells engulf
solid particles and degrade the ingested material
long duration; associated with the presence of lymphocytes and macrophages, the proliferation of blood vessels, fibrosis, and tissue destruction.
plasma proteins, mostly synthesized in the liver, whose plasma concentrations may increase several hundred fold as part of the response to inflammatory stimuli [IL-6, TNF, IL-1]
***3 most common are C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen****
may restore some original structures but can cause structural derangements (normal structure altered); often consists of a combo of regeneration & scar formation by the deposition of collagen
proliferation of cells & tissues to replace lost or damaged cells and tissues; normal structure is restored
a special type of tissue formed in the first 24-72 hours of the tissue repair process by fibroblast and vascular endothelial cell proliferation. It has a pink, soft, granular appearance on the wound surface and is the hallmark of tissue repair
excessive deposition of collagen and other ECM components in a tissue; indicates chronic diseases
a raised (hypertrophic) scar that grows beyond the boundaries of the original wound and does not regress; forms due to excess collagen deposition in the skin
This is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text
Black Box Warning
Note: It is the strongest warning that the FDA requires, and signifies that medical studies indicate that the drug carries a significant risk of serious or even life-threatening adverse effects.
These are paper handouts that come with many prescription medicines. The guides address issues that are specific to particular drugs and drug classes, and they contain FDA-approved information that can help patients avoid serious adverse events.
This is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, unapproved dosage, or unapproved form of administration.
This type of drug is a medication which inhibits the postganglionic functioning of the sympathetic nervous system.
This occurs because of a decreased quantity of the substance reaching the site it affects. This may be caused by an increase in induction of the enzymes required for degradation of the drug e.g. CYP450 enzymes. This is most commonly seen with substances such as ethanol, barbiturates and opiates.
This occurs when the response to the substance is decreased by cellular mechanisms. This may be caused by a down regulation of receptor numbers (or up regulation in the case of a receptor antagonist).
This is a foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism.