-improved strength and endurance - interacting with other people
- resistance to fatigue - making new friends
- improved flexibility Emotional
- greater lean body mass and less body fat - decreases anxiety
- improved cardiovascular function - increased self-esteem
Domains of P.A
1) leisure time - performed during recreation, non-working spare time and has freedom to choose an enjoyable activity. e.g gym, walking the dog, karate
2) household/gardening - activity that is carried out around the house and garden.
3) occupation - p.a performed regularly as a part of one's work or occupation. e.g personal trainer, p.e teacher.
4) active transport - performed while traveling to a specific destination. e.g done either by walking, cycling, skating or public transport.
Difference between P.A, Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior
P.A - any bodily activity that involves energy expenditure
Inactivity - Not performing enough p.a in order to meet the expected health guidelines
Sedentary behavior - staying in one spot doing one thing for a long period of time
Barriers to Physical activity - by age
- limited resources
- lack of social support
Open and Closed Skills
Open skillsClosed skills
where the environment has a great where the performer has the greatest control
impact on the skill over the skill. Usually performed in an enclosed
Fine vs Gross Motor Skills
Fine M.SGross M.S
skill that involves the use of smaller skill that involves the use of larger muscle
muscle groups, more precise movements groups. e.g. running, swimming.
e.g bouncing a ball before a serve in tennis
Types of Skills
Discrete - skill that has a distinct beginning and end. e.g. kicking a ball, netball pass.
Continuous - has no obvious beginning or end. e.g. walking, running.
Serial - the combination of several motor skills performed in a sequence. e.g. gymnastics floor routine
Open/Closed - the environmental effect on the skill and the control of the performer.
Types of Feedback
- visual - knowledge of results
- auditory - knowledge of performance
- proprioception (sensory information relayed from the muscles)
Example - A tennis serve
performer can visually see if the ball goes in, they can hear the sound of the ball hitting the tennis racquet ; tactile senses = grip on the racquet, proprioceptors = body position.
+ and - of the different types of practice
Blocked or Random Whole or Part
repetitive practice of the same thing Practice part of a skill or all of it
or varied sequencing of different motor skills e.g. tennis serve, stance, grip, ball toss etc
Massed or Distributed
refers to when the practice is scheduled
massed - less frequent training session that last a longer period of time
distributed - more frequent training sessions and and more rest time given.
Coaches code of Behavior
- place the safety of the athlete above all else
- respect the talent, developmental stages and goal of each person
- appropriate physical contact
- be honest and do not your qualification to be misinterpreted
3 Styles of learning
1) Visual Learners - seeing the instructions
2) Auditory Learners - listening to the instructions
3) Kinesthetic Learners - actually attempting/doing the instructions (hands on)
Styles of Coaching
Authoritarian - demands discipline, great importance on winning, lots of punishments.
Casual - more like a supervisor. Allows athletes to run their training sessions.
Democratic - may use a range of specialist staff and expertise.
Co-operative - involves the players in making the decision and helps guide them. appraochable
Roles and Responsibilities of a Coach
- working with parents - managing risk
- working with officials - ethical issues
- planning and reviewing - player-coach relationship
Respected Coach's Characteristics
- communication skills
- motivational skills
Is a defensive tactic used in basketball, in which a player is assigned to follow the movements of another play on the offense.
Zone defense is different to man-on-man defense in that instead of guarding another player, each defensive player is assigned to guard a part of the floor or a 'zone'
Game Strategies (7)
- game plan
- game tempo
- type of defense
- using time-outs
- end of quarter strategy
- late game strategy
Approaches to decision making (4)
- game sense
- discovery learning
- constraints (based coaching and deliberate)
- play and practice
Categories of games (4)
- striking/fielding e.g. baseball, cricket, softball
- invasion e.g. basketball, soccer, netball
- net/court e.g. tennis, badminton, volleyball, squash
- target e.g. golf, archery, darts, ten pin bowling
Definitions of TACTICS and STRATEGY
STRATEGY is the plans you devise before the competition - what you intend to do -
and TACTICS are the decisions and actions you execute in response to the situations in the game.
A broad classification of diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels which includes coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke and peripheral vascular disease.
The most common cause of cardiovascular disease is physical inactivity. The only way to decrease the risk is by participating in regular physical activity and increasing cardiovascular fitness.
Is the medical term for high blood pressure. During hypertension, both diastolic and systolic blood pressures are elevated above normal level. More prevalent in males. Is generally treated by regular moderate-intensity physical activity, reduced salt intake, prescribed drugs and stress management.
Under aroused, optimal arousal, over aroused, fatigued
under aroused - when you are late or delayed in responding to a stimuli
optimal arousal - when you respond to a stimuli right on time
over aroused - when you respond too soon and are too anticipated
fatigued - when you are tired resulting in you being incapable of performing your best
Definition of Discovering Learning
Repeatedly performing a specific movement skill and then modifying performance based on outcome feedback.
Definition of Constraints Based-Learning
Constraints are all the factors that can influence learning and performance at any moment in time.
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