Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
What percentage of adult population smoke?
What is the current direction that adolescent smoking has taken?
What was the outcome of the class action suit brought by all 50 states, and what was the effect of the Master Tobacco Settlement Agreement (1999) on the ability of the tobacco industry to market its products?
What are the two principal dimensions dependence? What are specific aspects seen within physical dependence?
Identify each of the theories of nicotine dependency discussed in this chapter.
1- Genetic influences-
2- Bolus Theory- the brain gets excited by the nicotine=ne with each inhalation.
3- Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Theory (ACHT)- nicotine stimulates the hormone ACTH from the “Master Gland” of the endocrine system which releases beta endorphins causing mild euphoria.
4- Self-Medication Theory- nicotine can lift a person’s spirits even if just for a short time, which people utilize to feel better.
How do modeling and manipulation explain the development of emotional dependence on tobacco?
In the amount consumed by the typical smoker, what is the effect of nicotine on central nervous system function and how does this differ in chain smokers?
A: the effects of nicotine on the central nervous system may eventually result in physical dependence or addiction, nicotine also produces changes of short duration within the brain.
In chain smokers nicotine influences by having a depressive influence on the central nervous system function in contrast to the typical smoker.
What effects does nicotine have on the body outside of the central nervous system? How does the influence of nicotine resemble that associated with the stress response?
What is the principle effect of carbon monoxide on cardiac function?
Whatt effect does passive smoke have on nonsmoking adults and children?
How is the federal government attempting to limit the exposure that children and adolescence currently have to tobacco products advertisements?
. With comparison to cigarettes, what health risks are associated with pipe and cigar smoking?
How can parents begin to talk to their children about tobacco so they won’t become smokers in the future?
List the 6 general categories of drugs. Give several examples from each category, and explain the effects they would have on the user. What are designer drugs?
1-Depressants: Alcohol, barbiturates, Ambien, ecstasy. Causes slurred speech, disorientation, impaired memory of events, shallow respirations, decreased motor skills, insomnia, convulsions, and possible death.
2-Stimulants: Cocaine, Meth, Adderall, Ritalin. Causes increased alertness, excitation, insomnia, increased pulse rate, temperature and blood pressure, agitation, and loss of appetite.
3-Hallucinagines: LSD, PCP, Mushrooms, Mescaline, Ketamine. Causes heightened senses, teeth grinding, dehydration, illusions, hallucinations, and altered perception of time and distance.
4-Cannibus: Marijuana and Hashish. Causes euphoria, drowsiness, increased appetite, disorientation, paranoia, and fatigue.
5-Narcotics: Heroine, Morphine, Oxycotin, Tylenol with codeine. Causes euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea, convulsions, coma, and possible death.
6-Inhalants: Nitrous oxide, whippets, balloons, and laughing gas. Causes impaired memory, slurred speech, drunken behavior, slow-onset vitamin deficiency, vomiting, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness, and possible death.Designer drugs are psychoactive drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier and primarily affects the central nervous system and the brain functions
. What prescriptions and over the counter medications are available?
Explain what dependence means. Identify and explain two types of dependence?
Dependence: psycho active drugs and alcohol have a strong potential for the development of dependence.
Psychological dependence: over time misuse and abuse can result in psychological dependence.
Alcohol dependence: is a primary chronic disease with genetic psycho social and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestation. The disease is often progressive and fatal.
What percentage of smokers have quit smoking and how can you confirm that quitting has actually happened?
Describe how neurotransmitters work?
Identify and explain the three steps in the process of addiction?
The process of addiction
And addiction begins after a person I exposed to a drug (alcohol) or a behavior (gambling) that he or she finds enjoyable. This initial pleasure gradually reinforces the addictive behavior.
The person spends more energy, time, and money pursing the drug use or behavior. During this phase, a person’s life often degenerates as the person feels a strong urge to experience the effect of the drug or the behavior. An addicted person’s family, friends, work or school become less important, then they search for more and better highs.
Loss of control
Overtime, the person experiences both an increased need for the drug or behavior and a desire to avoid the effects of withdrawal. Addicted people lose the ability to control their behavior. Despite overwhelming negative consequences, addicted people continue to behave in ways that make their lives worse.
How’s the term drug defined in this chapter. What are psychoactive drugs and how to medicines differ from drugs?
A drug is defined as any substance natural, artificial, other than food, that by its chemical or physical nature alters structure or function in an organism.
Psychoactive drugs alter the user’s feelings, behavior, perceptions, or moods. They include stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, opiates, and inhalants.
Prescription medications are different then drugs because they function to heal unhealthy tissue as well as to ease pain prevent illness and diagnose health conditions.
Identify the various factors that influence the absorption of alcohol and why is it important to be aware of these factors?
Alcohol concentration: stronger drinks means more absorption
Number of drinks consumed: the more you drink the more drunk you get
Speed of consumption: the quicker you drink the quicker you get drunk
Presence of food: if you eat before you drink, then the food will absorb the alcohol and take it out of the body for you, so you will be less intoxicated.
Degree of hydration: more water will deplete the alcohol
Genetics: if your family has history with it then you're more at risk for alcoholism
Race/ethnicity: East Asians get drunk quicker because they don't have the enzymes to break down alcohol
Gender: women absorb 30 percent more alcohol in the blood than men so they get drunk quicker
What is BAC? Describe the general sequence of physiological events that takes place when a person drinks alcohol at a rate faster than the liver can oxidize?
What is the relationship between regulatory genes, including tumor suppressor genes, in the development of cancer? Why regulatory genes called both proto-oncogenes and oncogenes?
What properties do cancer cells possess that are lacking in normal cells?
What are the principal factors that contribute to the development of lung cancer? Of breast cancer? When should regular use of mammography begin and which women should begin using it earliest?
In terms of Alzheimer’s disease, what is the cause of its victim’s cognitive decline?
How effective are current medication used in the treatment of AD.
The cause for this is aging. Medications for AD do not exist at this time. There are some medications that AD patients take to try and help but they’re not terribly effective at this time.
. Identify the principal components of the cardiovascular system and trace the path of blood through the heart and cardiovascular system?
What are some of the important functions of blood?
Define cardiovascular disease and explain what risk factors are?
What risk factors can be changed and what risk factors can’t be changed?
What are the give major forms of cardiovascular disease? For each of these diseases describe what the disease is and it cause and treatment?
Coronary Heart Disease: involves damage to vessels that supply blood to the heart. The cause is atherosclerosis, produces a narrowing of the coronary arteries. Treatment- bypass surgery, stents, transplants
Congenital Heart Disease: present at birth, abnormalities of the heart caused by rubella. Requires surgery as a treatment
Rheumatic Heart Disease: caused by streptocal infection it’s a bacterial infection. There is no treatment at this time
Congestive Heart Failure- heart lacks the necessary strength to circulate blood. Results from unordinary lifestyles, smoking, bad eating habits etc. Treatment is lifestyle changes and proper use of prescribed medication
Disease of Arteries- blood vessel disease that effects path to extremities. Cigarette smoking, high fat diet etc, are the cause. Healthier lifestyle is the treatment.
Describe how high-density lipoproteins differ from low-density lipoproteins.
What problems does atherosclerosis produce?
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!