Therapeutic drug overview of the two types of diabetes mellitus
Type I insulin with thiazolidinedione for severe insulin resistance Type II metformin other oral hypoglycemic agent α-glucuronidase inhibitor combination of metformin and thiazolidinedione or sulfonylurea insulin ACEI to reduce HTN (nephroprotective)
What is the clinical use of glucagon?
catabolism of glycogen stores into glucose
use for severe hypoglycemia and treat or prevent diabetic coma
diagnosis of DM I
beta blocker poisoning (to reverse B1 blockade)
What kind of receptor is the insulin receptor?
tyrosine kinase receptor upon ligand binding, forms dimers and phosphorylates each other
activates phosphoinositol-3-kinase which activates PKC and Akt responsible for glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, lipid synthesis, protein synthesis
What are the target tissues of insulin?
skeletal and cardiac muscles, liver, adipose
stimulates anabolic processes for controlling uptake, use and storage of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids
inhibits catabolic processes in breakdown of glycogen, protein, and fats
What chemicals and neuronal stimulation promotes insulin secretion?
glucose, amino acids, ketones
parasympathetic stimulation (vagal)
hormones associated with digestion (gastric inhibitory peptide)