Epicurus thinks an important key to happiness lies in natural science because...
a. it leads to technological breakthroughs that enhance the quality of life
b. it can show us that some of our fears are unfounded
c. knowledge is something good in itself
d. we should aim to keep our wills in harmony with nature
According to Epicurus, someone who thinks happiness is pleasure and the absence of pain will
a. be unjust to others, if it will increase pleasure for oneself
b. indulge her every desire
c. be an untrustworthy friend
d. be content with having little
A. believes that our happiness or unhappiness is entirely within our own control b. says "grin and bear it", no matter how unhappy something makes you c. cares for no one and nothing but his own freedom and happiness d. prefers nothing, shuns nothing, and is indifferent to everything.
When stoics advise us to keep our wills in harmony with nature, they:
a. mean that if something feels natural to us, we should "go with the flow" and "just do it!"
b. deny God
c. contradict Plato and Aristotle, who emphasize living in accord with reason.
d. are in effect advising us to do our duty
A stoic thinks we should:
a. seek virtue more than happiness
b. never seek pleasure as an end
c. always be virtuous, because virtue produces the greatest pleasure
d. be skeptical of all claims to know what virtue is
a skeptic will:
a. assert that nothing can be known
b. assert that we can know only the contents of our own minds
c. suspend judgement about what reality is like
d. refuse to ask why
With respect to the question, "Does a criterion of truth exist?" the skeptic:
a. asserts with Xenophanes of Colophon that it does not.
b. claims that an infinite regress is the only criterion available
c. engages in circular reasoning to prove the existence of a criterion
d. suspends judgement
SHORT ANSWER: For that kinds of pains does Epicurus believe there is a remedy? and what is it?
Beliefs: if there are pains that are due because of these beliefs... change these beliefs. beliefs that cause distress are false god and death
SHORT ANSWER: Given that Epicureans think pleasure is the sole good, why do they praise moderation?
Happiness is produced in a sober state, which examines the motive for every choice and rejection. Some desires are natural and some are vain(designer clothing). And within natural some are necessary and some are merely natural (sexual desire). And within the necessary some are for life (food, drink, shelter), or for ease (a bed), or for happiness (friendship).
SHORT ANSWER: Explain the skeptical "problem of the criterion"
Claims to knowledge and truth are a dime a dozen (religious, popular, philosophical) How to decide. What mark or standard are we to decide from among them or decide truth and knowledge? NO satisfactory criterion is to be found. Infinite regress--where does God come from? Circular reasoning (with God)
SHORT ANSWER: What does it mean when the skeptic recommends that we suspend judgment? About what? Why? And will that be a good for us?
If you cannot solve the problem of criterion... then can't make a decision.
a. recommends pursuing every pleasure, so as to maximize happiness in life b. is a doctrine that disparges pleasure and recommends virtue as the key to happiness c. is compatible with denying oneself many pleasures d. has nothing to say about pain, fear, and sorrow
St Paul taught that:
a. the soul is essentially good, and salvation consists in becoming aware of who you are
b. Jesus and Socrates are much alike, men of virtue whom it would be wise to imitate
c. the will is in conflict with itself and we cannot save ourselves
d. unless we live good lives, we cannot inherit the kingdom of Heaven
A. agrees with Socrates that virtue is knowledge b. agrees with Socrates that the explanation for wrongdoing is ignorance c. agrees with St. Paul that our wills are divided and that we cannot heal ourselves d. agrees that the self-reliance of the Stoics is the key to happiness
Augustine was attracted to the Manicheans because they:
a. seemed to deal with the problem of evil in a rational manner
b. held that there is one God, omnipotent, omniscient, and perfectly good.
c. took the scriptures literally
d. thought, as Augustine himself did, that will was more fundamental than intellect.
Augustine solves the problem of natural evil by:
a. feeding the hungry and providing for the poor
b. accepting that there is, always has been, and always will be an evil power in conflict with the good.
c. arguing that without evil there couldn't be any good.
d. denying that evil is a positive reality
In meditating on the puzzling nature of time, Augustine concludes that:
a. time is an illusion and only God's eternity exists.
b. neither the past nor the future nor the present can have any reality at all
c. time came into being with the creation
d. god endures through all past and future time, as well as in the present
Sin, according to Augustine, is:
a. having disordered loves
b. not to be attributed to babies, who are truly innocent
c. something that just happens to us, a fate we cannot help
d. a mistake we make when we don't know better.
Citizens of the heavenly city:
a. have dual citizenship
b. have lives of quiet perfection, in contrast to the citizens of the earthly city
c. pursue peace, in contrast with the citizens of the earthly city
d. are those who have died and gone to heaven
SHORT ANSWER: What insight into human nature does Augustine draw from the incident of stealing pears?
Augustine concludes that he stole the pears for the shear love of committing a deed that he knew was wrong. His delight came precisely because he knew it was wrong. Will is a good thing Great--Lesser--Intermediate (free will) Human race has made a bad use of its free will.
SHORT ANSWER: State "the problem of evil".
If god is the creator of ever thing then he must have created evil. If god didn't create evil then he is not the most powerful being If God didn't create evil but allows it to exist he is not benevolent.
SHORT ANSWER: Explain the idea of the Great Chain of Being.
nothingness/evil higher up=more goodness and being rocks to dogs to humans to angels to (GAP) to GOD. God has most being and goodness
SHORT ANSWER: How does the notion of the Great Chain of Being help Augustine to solve the problem of evil?
There is no (our concept of) evil. Evil is the privation of good.
SHORT ANSWER: The Manichees had asked, "What do you Christians say God was doing before he created heaven and earth?" What is Augustine's answer?
Present of things past (memory) Present of things present (direct awareness) Present of thing future (expectation)
a. moves from existence to essence
b. presupposes that God exists
c. starts from essence and ends with existence
d. begins with premises derived from Christian faith
Reason and Revelation, Aquinas holds,
a. are irreconcilably in conflict
b. are two compatible sources of truth
c. cannot deal with the same topics
d. both depend on faith for their validation
The argument for God's existence from change:
a. claims that every change is a transition from actuality to potentiality
b. assumes that something can be simultaneously both potentially hot and actually hot.
c. assumes that changes can be ...
d. argues that without a first cause there would be no intermediate causers of change
in the argument from possibility and necessity, Aquinas reasons that:
a. since at one time nothing existed, something must have come from nothing.
b. not every being could be a merely possible being.
c. every being is a necessary being, otherwise there would be an infinite regress
d. some necessary beings have their being caused by merely possible beings
SHORT ANSWER: Give the essentials of any of the give ways of proving God's existence.
1. Argument from Change- Things move but can't move on own must be God 2. Argument from efficient Cause- everything has cause and effect. First cause=god 3. Argument from possibility & necessity- things that need be and things that need not be. 4. Grades of Goodness in things- Different levels of goodness. god is ultimate good 5. Guidedness of Nature- must be a designer=God
In the Aristotle-Ptolemy-Dante picture of the world,
a. heaven is understood to be quite literally up above us.
b. space is thought to be infinite
c. the sun is located at the very center of the created universe
d. human beings are thought to be insignificant in comparison with the glories of the celestial bodies
a. intensify the otherworldliness embedded in medieval culture by emphasizing that human perfection is possible only in the life to come.
b. see clearly that a good human life, as represented in the classics, is incompatible with Christianity.
c. celebrate the human being as the central fact in all the created world
d. tend to be pessimistic about humanity's prospects
a. speaks of man as "maker and molder" of himself b. upholds the Church as the legitimate interpreter of Scripture, lest chaos result from individual opinions c. leaves the Church, resigning his priesthood in disgust over the selling of indulgences d. stresses the grace of God and the inability of human beings to save themselves
SHORT ANSWER: Where is hell, in the picture Dante gives us, and what do the various circles of hell represent?
Center of earth Leopard- sins of incontinence (lust, gluttony, greed) Lion- sins of violence (wrath, heretics, violence) Wolf- sins of fraud and malice (fraud and traitors)
SHORT ANSWER: What is the disagreement between Luther and the Church basically about?
Authority of scripture Use of scripture vs. church authority Grace of God Indulgences
Among the rules of Descartes' method is the following:
a. Doubt only what you have clear and distinct, conclusive reason for doubting
b. multiply possibilities lest you miss a plausible alternative
c. accept only what an authoritative source reveals
d. make comprehensive reviews
In the Meditions, Descartes aims to:
a. establish the irrelevance of God to modern physics
b. show that the soul is identical with the body
c. provide a firm foundation for knowledge
d. prove that first philosophy is founded on a mistake
We ought to doubt our senses, Descartes says, because:
a. they sometimes deceive us
b. we don't understand God's purposes
c. there exists an evil deceiver intent on leading us astray
d. we are dreaming
The result of Descartes' methodical doubt is that:
a. he knows nothing
b. he knows he is a rational animal
c. he doubts his own existence
d. he finds something that can indicate a criterion for knowledge
Descartes' first argument for God's existence, in Mediation 3:
a. is a causal argument
b. moves directly from the idea of God to God's existence
c. relies on the principle that everything must originally have come from nothing
d. makes use of the idea that there must be an infinite regress to guarantee infinite perfection
Descartes argues that material things exist by:
a. pointing out that not only can we see them, but we can touch them as well
b. relying on the fact that our senses do not always deceive us.
c. showing that even if the evil demon deceives us, it still seems to us as though they do exist
d. claiming that if they did not exist, God would be deceiver
Descartes thinks it is important to prove the existence of God because:
a. otherwise many people would not believe
b. you should not trust the scriptures to tell you the truth
c. otherwise you couldn't be sure of anything but your own existence
d. it is an essential bulwark for a pious life.
SHORT ANSWER: State the four rules of Descartes' method that he thinks will allow us to make intellectual progress
1. Never accept anything as true if there is no evident knowledge of its truth 2. divide each of the difficulties into as many parts as possible--to resolve better 3. begin with simplest 4. make comprehensive reviews to leave nothing out
SHORT ANSWER: To what certainty does Descartes' metholodical doubt lead? What makes him think he is right about that?
"I think, therefore I am". "I am the only thing that actually exists; everything else if only real for me"
SHORT ANSWER: Why does Descartes feel a need to inquire about the existence and nature of God?
Otherwise you couldn't be sure of anything other than your own existence
SHORT ANSWER: How does the conviction that God is not a deceiver help Descartes to establish the reality of an external, material world?
God is not a deceiver, therefore we can trust our senses and believe that this world exists and that around us exists as well
The view, which must be stated in the first person, that only I exist; the worry about falling into solipsism motivates Descartes to try to prove the existence of God
The idea that traits and situations interact to influence behavior. - effect of traits on behavior depends on the strength of the situation -personality influences situations people choose to enter -personality can influence situations so that the situation is actually different
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