2/4 Synderesis- equivilent to intuition Intuition for moral statements Ex. ?killing is wrong? 2 ways to gain knowledge 1) argumentation 2) when you grasp the truth of a statement by itself -All bachelors are unmarried- you don?t need any arguments to prove this true= intuition command theory and natural law theory have in common: -superstition that morality and religion go together command theory- moral theory is god?s command problem: ?euthyphro problem? we don?t know if something is good because god says it is or if its good and god just says it( so does god decide if its good? ex. ?do not kill? ?killing is wrong? or ?killing is wrong because god says it is? 1)if killing wrong itself?--> than why do we need god god is just an advisor 2) if killing is wrong because god says so problem: Aquinas is saying this is not right- cant mix morality and Christianity Natural Theory Created by Thomas Aquinas 13th century Says this is an improvement of the command theory Moral principle: Human Nature / Nature Nature: Ordered in preserving life Comes natural to every human There is value in life( observation Do not kill Since this is natural, everything that goes against it is wrong So having kids( is putting value in life Laws are more general( like do not kill Abortion- abortion is killing( and killing goes against value of life Reason can see this by intuition Principles: There is value in life( you can see this by observing nature This is what he means by 1st principle So killing is wrong cuz it goes against nature Aquinas belives you can change the law There are times when there are exceptions( thus you are adding something to the command Ex. Self defense( agrees with nature?(cuz preserving self) Thus action is not wrong( cuz it was a consequence, not the intention ?Double effect?( the idea that as long as your intention is not to kill a person is fine, the problem is when the motivation of your action goes against nature this depends on if your motivation is self preservation or if your intention is to kill( than its wrong (cuz it goes against the preservation of life) thus even though the general rule is ?do not kill?( there are exceptions like self defense this comes from the idea that everything in nature has a purpose Objections: everything has a purpose (aim, goal)( this idea comes from Aristotle (the 4 causes) everything has a final cause( everything what is the goal as a human being? Human beings are rational beings So goal is to rationalize Essential property is to be rational so contraception is wrong- cuz it goes against the human natural purpose( its unnatural what goes against or prevents a natural purpose is wrong what promotes what is natural= good natural law theory is more concerned about what you should not do main idea: why does nature know best( final answer is god since god created the universe( it has to be good Basis of whole theory: Moral principle: nature What you get from this is: what is natural is good Why? Because its god?s creation and god is good Thomas Aquinas would say God is Good( wouldn?t even question it - if you don?t have god, this theory doesn?t work what is evil than? (based on this theory) Same answer as Augustine Evil is a privation of goodness( (has little good) Everything is good cuz it was created by god What is evil has lost its goodness( it?s a distance from natural goodness The cause of evil is human beings( because we are rational and free will But its better for us to be free than not to be free During midevil time they believed in a metaphysical goodness So everything is good( humans just choose to do wrong There isn?t a lack of goodness( just a privation So if there is an earthquake-> there is a reason for it cuz it was created by god Humanity is the cause of evil in the world It?s a gift that comes with a possible consequence( we have to learn how to do it right Essence( essential properties does not = accidental Are things that define us Ex. Freedom Is natural for a human to be social, rational, free= essential properties of a human Where your born etc, are not essential cuz they come and go Another essential property= laughter Only way you can laugh is through reasoning Aquinas would say before people knew god existed, that natural law existed( we just use god to help? Forgot the word
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