Validity: if the premises are true the conclusion cannot be false. Has nothing to do with the actual truth.
Soundness: true premises and valid
Contingency vs. necessity
Contingency: might be true or false but doesn’t HAVE to be true or false
Necessity: Has to be false or has to be true
What are 3 different types of materialism?
Eliminative materialism: everything is a material thing and there are no non material things.
Reductive materialism: everything is a material thing or everything reduces to a material thing.
Kevin: Some things are material things.
Explain Berkeley’s argument that concludes that there are no material objects?
1) We perceive ordinary objects (houses, rivers)
2) We perceive only ideas
Conclusion: ordinary objects are only ideas
Why is Berkeley's anti materialism incompatible with Descartes view of extension?
For Berkeley: Thinks that there are no material objects. Everything is a mental state.
Ex) A table is not a material, it's mental and has an extension.
For D: there is both the mental and material state. The table is a material thing because it has an extension
How does Philonous use pleasure and pain to support the idea that all qualities are a dependent?
Philonous argues that he enjoys chili peppers (finds pleasure) but his wife dislikes chili peppers (finds pain). However, the chili pepper cannot be both pleasant and painful at the same time because pleasure and pain are mutually exclusive qualities. Therefore, qualities are mind-dependent.