PHIL201 Midterm Exam
Last Modified: 2012-02-17
- Reasoning conducted or assessed according to strict principles of validity: "experience is a better guide to this than deductive logic".
- A particular system or codification of the principles of proof and inference: "Aristotelian logic". (Aristotle)
b. used the arts of rhetoric as taught by the Sophists.
c. asked for payment before he began the discussion.
d. preferred to be criticized and refuted rather than to refute others.
b. tried to teach others the truth as he saw it.
c. confessed that if an opinion seemed true to you...
d. tried not to antagonize people.
One of Socrates' settled convictions is that
a. it is useless to search for the truth; that is for the gods alone to know.
b. someone who knows what justice is will be just.
c. when a person does evil, it is because their will is corrupt.
d. the most important thing is to take care of your family.
a. he took very little pay for his teaching...
b. he was interested in the question of human excellence.
c. the youth of Athens sought out his company.
d. he thought winning was not the main thing.
Euthyphro meets Socrates before the court because
a. he is being prosecuted for the murder of his father.
b. he is prosecuting his father for murder.
c. he has charged Socrates with impiety.
d. his reputation as an expert on piety has been challenged...
The main thing Socrates wants Euthyphro to teach him is
a. why it is just to prosecute your father for murder.
b. why the gods quarrel.
c. the form of justice.
d. what makes something pious.
a. that Euthyphro's stories about the gods lead him, together with this definition, into contradiction.
b. that we don't know what the gods love.
c. that it only tells us how the gods regard the pious, not what it is.
a. Socrates should spend his life questioning the Athenians about virtue.
b. no one was wiser than Socrates.
c. Oedipus would kill his father.
One thing Socrates does not say during his defense speech at the trial is that
a. life is the greatest good.
b. a good man cannot be harmed.
c. it is wicked and shameful to do wrong.
a. it is either a dreamless sleep or conversation with those that died before.
b. it is not wise to fear something when you do not know whether it is bad.
c. all of the above.
Socrates refuses Crito's offer of escape from prison because
a. he is already seventy years old and would die
b. it would be dangerous for his family if he tried to escape.
c. he doesn't want to be a burden
d. in escaping he would do injury to the laws of Athens.
c. backed up by reasons.
d. all of the above.
a. mirror images of them.
b. ideas of them in our minds.
c. their cause and explanation.
d. identical with the class of things having something in common with a given thing.
a. the prisoners represent all of us before we begin to search for wisdom.
b. the prisoners are forced to look directly at the firec. no one who escapes and sees reality as it is would ever return
a. fun and painless.
b. a one-time event.
c. difficult and sometimes uncomfortable.
The philosopher, Plato says, cultivates dying. He says this because
a. philosophizing attaches us to intelligible realities, and so separates us from the body.
b. he realizes we all fear death and need help to approach it with courage.
c. philosophers hate life.
d. the wise Silenus has said that the best thing for a human being is not to be, and the next best is to die soon.
a. the ego, which is the reality principle.
b. the id, or the set of unconscious desires present in every soul.
c. the superego, or one’s conscience.
d. reason, which guides.
a. a matter of how you feel.
b. determined by how many of your desires are satisfied.
c. a condition of harmony among the parts of the soul.
d. something even a bad person can experience.
A moral person
a. may have a rough time in life, but will be admired by all in the end.
b. may or may not be a happy person.
c. is the person considered by a community to be moral.
d. will be a happy person.
a. statesmanship, like navigation, requires knowledge.
b. sailors are generally an unruly lot.
c. whoever has power in a state had better watch out, for there are always others ready to snatch it away.
d. democracy is the best form of government.
A statement, according to Aristotle, is
a. like a prayer.
b. composed of three or more terms.
c. like knowledge, always true.
d. either true or false.
a. the conclusion follows from the premises.
b. there are always exactly three terms.
c. the premises must be true if the conclusion is true.
d. if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true.
The first principles of a science are
a. the clearest and most certain things we know.
b. arrived at by demonstration.
c. proved to be true through syllogistic reasoning.
In Aristotle's account of the four causes,
a. the efficient cause of the world is God.
b. a final cause is pure potentiality.
c. the formal cause is the three-dimensional shape (or form) that a material object has.
d. the material cause is the one that explains the individuality of things.
a. never to be sought as an end.
b. the end that humans are naturally motivated by.
c. unsuitable as the principal end for rational creatures.
d. the reason we should be virtuous.
a. facts about an individual and her circumstances are relevant to what should be done.
b. we all have different values.
c. if you think x is the right thing to do...
d. there are no virtues common to all.
a. I didn't know that was wrong.
b. My parents mistreated me when I was young.
c. I did it to Jones because Jones did it to me.
d. I was forced to do it.
a. cares for his creatures as a father cares for his child.
b. functions as the final cause for the world.
c. knows the number of hairs on each person's head.
d. is a moved unmover.
a. the unique possession of rational creatures such as humans.
b. a primary substance.
c. common to all nature-facts.
d. the form of a living body.
a. harmony in the soul.
b. a feeling of excellence (arete) pervading the soul.
c. activity of the soul in accord with reason.
d. whatever makes you feel good about yourself.
a. believing knowledge is different from opinion.
b. holding that something like a puppy is as real as anything can be.
c. loving wisdom less.
d. being more otherworldly than Plato.
Aristotle explains change in terms of
a. atoms and the void.
b. flux and opposition.
c. the vortex motion of the universe.
d. actuality and potentiality.
a. the plan God had in mind when he created nature.
b. intentions resident in every nature-fact.
c. the entelechy resident in things.
d. our using nature for our own
State and explain Euthyphro’s Dilemma.
What kind of wisdom does Socrates claim to have? What kind does he lack? Describe each.
"I have never been anyone's teacher." Why does he feel the need to say this? And what does he mean by it?
Why would Socrates refuse an offer to spare his life if only he would cease practicing philosophy?
Why does Socrates think one should never do wrong?
What is the reasoning that convinces Socrates that it would be wrong to escape from prison, as Crito urges him to?
What are the parts of the soul? What are their functions?
Rational- guide the spirit and desire
What does Plato think morality or justice consists of--in the individual soul and in the state?
Rational- Philosopher Kings- Governing
Does Aristotle's logic do anything to resolve the problems posed by the Sophist's teaching of rhetoric?
What is God like? What kind of cause is God?
He is the unmoved mover. He draws everything to him...therefore he is the final cause.
Always in the good state
Characterize the three kinds of soul.
higher kinds of soul incorporate the lower, but the lower cannot exist without the higher
How is soul related to body?
Explain Aristotle's doctrine of the mean.
What is a syllogism?
Premises offered must be true
Relation between the premises and conclusion then the conclusion can't possibly be false.
Explain Aristotle's doctrine of virtue, include mean, practical wisdom, and the relation of virtue to happiness.
practical wisdom-once the single virtue, practical sense, is present, all the virtues will be present
the happiness is achieved through excellence (virtue)
Compare Aristotle and Plato on the question of reality. What kinds of things are most real? Why?
Aristotle=reality to logos.
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