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According to the ontological proof, the possibility of conceiving a being than which nothing greater can be conceived entails what?
The logical necessity of the real existence of such a being.
What is Hume’s criticism of DesCartes’s assertion that there cannot be a series of infinite causes?
You can always recall past events and there is no logical contradiction in the notion
Darwin criticizes the teleological argument by making a distinction between what two things?
Design and order
In what sense to both Feuerbach and Marx believe that religion contains the truth?
a spiritual truth that should become a social truth; they are addressing the right issue of human misery
Finish this phrase from W.K. Clifford: “It is wrong always, everywhere, and for everyone, to believe anything…”
Saint Theresa believed that we must find God not only in spiritual moments but also among the what?
Among pots and pans ( the small in the world)
According to Kierkegaard, ultimately who is your source of authority and responsibility?
With whom does the idea of determinism first appear?
In the theories of Leucippus and Democritus
What is indeterminism (libertarianism)?
The idea that some acts (her own acts) could be different from what they in fact are, even if those different decisions and acts had been preceded by the very same history that they now have.
What does a soft determinist (compatibilist) believe?
believe that freedom and responsibility, if correctly defined, is compatible with determinism.
What is Strawson’s infinite regress argument against libertarianism?
An attempt to show that character creates itself, b/c a decision to create one’s own character would have to be made by a character that must have preexisted the decision.
There is no robust meaning of “could have done otherwise” that is compatible with determinism, and if freedom and responsibility require a serious sense of alternative possibilities.
According to Palmer, what is Kierkegaard’s concept of original sin?
Primarily dread or anxiety of Adam to his free choices.
Plato is concerned that society could be undermined by what?
Hobbe’s political views presuppose what theory?
According to Hobbes, what do we have to do in order to keep ourselves from breaking our contracts with other members of society?
Become active member of a political society, giving to the king
What is the difference between retributive and preventative justice?
Retributive: earned punishment
Preventative: restrained from committing similar crimes
What is the difference between a representative democracy and a participatory democracy?
-Representative democracy: is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people.
-Participatory democracy: individual participation by citizens in political decisions and policies that affect their lives, especially directly rather than through elected representatives.
According to Rousseau, we vote not to make a approve or to reject a proposal, but to determine what the ______ ____ is concerning it (two words)
What is Mill’s principle of liberty?
In order to draw the distinction between the public and the private; the body public can restrain the action of individual members of society only if the actions harm others
What is the motto of justice for Marx?
“from each according to his ability, to each according to his need.”
According to Rawls, the only just society is a liberal society that does what?
According to Anaximenes, where do divine things come from?
According to Heraclitus, what is the rule for most people?
“it is the same thing that can be thought and that can be”
According to Democritus, everything that takes place is determined by what?
Casual result of previous states or concurrent states of affairs
According to Plato’s dialogue Theatetus, sophists believe that wisdom consists of the ability for a person to convince you that what you feel is evil is actually what?
What did the Presocratics give us?
What is Thales’ basic philosophical contributions?
Anaximander’s explanation of how the universe works.
What is Axaximenes’ basic philosophical contributions?
What is Xenophanes’ basic philosophical contribution?
Pythagoras: from the outline, know i, ix, and xi.
Know Parmenides’ argument that we only have knowledge about the world of ideas (reality), his argument that reality cannot change, his argument that the object of our thoughts must exist, and his definition of the plenum.
Know Zeno of Elea’s argument of the line, his argument of the arrow, and his argument of Achilles. How does he use these to defend Parmenides’ philosophy?
What does Epictetus recommend you do in order to avoid being disturbed if your spouse or child dies?
Accustom yourself to the thought that death is nothing to us. The mortality of life enjoyable not by adding infinite, but by removing the yearning for immortality.
While it is possible for a human to say how an external object appears, why must (s)he suspend judgment on how it really is according to Sextus?
-It will be possible for us to say how external things appear to us, but how it appears in reality we shall suspend our judgement.
-We can’t judge between our own ideas and those of other animals
What two things can be fairly ascribed to Socrates?
Inductive arguments and universal definition; both are concerned with the starting point of science
Either “God loves or commands what is right b/c it is right” or “What is right is right b/c God commands (loves) it.”
Meno or Phaedo
What does it mean to be good instrumentally?
Good for something else or the sake of something else.
According to Plato, the soul is unified except when attached to what?
To the body
The Greek word for purpose or goal
According to Aristotle, what is the same as “to be happy” (eudaimonea)
“to live well” or “to do well”
According to Aristotle, happiness is acquired primarily through _____ instead of good luck.
Moral virtue is the outcome of what?
Pleasures and pains
Virtue is a mean state lying between two what? (Make sure you understand this sentence)
Vices (excess and deficiency)
Facts and values
Augustine says people never learn to do what?
According to Augustine, what is wrong with admitting that sins come from the souls that God created, and those souls come from God?
You are tracing the sins back to God
Augustine argues that what appears to be relativism is not relativism. Explain his thinking in one sentence.
Variations in laws and moral beliefs b/t different earthly communities are to be expected given the limitations imposed on those communities of fallen human nature.
Plato and St. Augustine seem to agree that true virtue is only possible when we focus on the what?
According to Augustine, since God foreknew the first person was going to sin, then that sin ___________ had to happen.
Augustine talks about God’s timelessness in Book 11 of what writing?
According to Anselm, it simply belongs to the definition of God that God has _________ existence.
According to Averroes, if the meaning of Scripture conflicts with demonstrative conclusions (science), [then Scripture] must be interpreted _____________ (or metaphorically). Therefore, Scripture can never be in conflict with science, (and it can never make fully sure scientific claims until science has confirmed them).
According to Maimonides, when the Bible uses phrases that are translated “seeing God,” this does not refer to physically seeing God, but to what kind of perception?
Explain Aquinas’s 4 kinds of law.
Eternal law, natural law, human law, and divine law
Aquinas notes that different peoples have somewhat different ideas about what is right and wrong; however, he believes that general moral principles are the same for all. So, what is the difference according to him?
Natural law (how you apply it in a real situation)
Bacon and Newton agree with what other philosopher who wrote that science is the discovery of causes?
it originated from a being with infinite perfection, and this being is God
According to “Kierkegaard,” no weapon is so dangerous as the art of what?
Describe the two important Islamic philosophers of the Middle Ages
William of Champaeux (1070-1122)
Aquinas on forms
Aquinas on the soul after life
Rationalists claims about knowledge
Rationalists claims about necessity and contingency
Leibnitz’s Principle of Sufficient Reason.
How did Leibnitz get to the argument Principle of Sufficient Reason.
What does Locke mean when he identifies Ideas of Sensation vs. Ideas of Reflection?
How does he define Primary vs. Secondary Qualities?
According to Locke, what is Substance?
Explain his Statement of Representationalism.
What are two of Berkeley’s Criticisms about Locke’s theory of representationalism?
How does Berkeley accept the Locke’s simple ideas while rejecting the object from which they come? Use a lump of sugar as an example.
How does Berkeley make use of Ockham to argue that things exist only insofar as that are known by the mind?
How does Berkeley’s reality differ from Locke’s?
Why does Hume dismiss Berkeley’s God?
Explain Hume’s Fork.
Explain Hume’s habituation.
What does Freud say about free will?
According to Hume, from where comes our notion of cause and effect?
What is Kant’s most important work?
What is the connection between us and reality?
who are the key Rationalists are and describe their philosophy in brief
What are Kant’s Forms of Intuition?
What is the matter of the phenomenon?
What is the noumenal world?
What role do the categories play?
Describe our two selves.
From which world does our moral being arise?
What is a problem for Kant’s system?
What is the basic problem of Kant’s theory of reality?
According to “Kierkegaard,” it is “impossible for one human being to be anything to another human being except to be what?
According to “Kierkegaard,” “when two beings fall in love with one another and begin to suspect that they were made for each other, it is time to have the courage to” do what?
According to Wollstonecraft, the miseducation of women needs to be replaced by what?
Nietzsche denies that metaphysics is possible but the impulse that makes people ask what is real can be satisfied in what?
For Nietzsche, the coming Superman will be able to live beyond what?
Wittgenstein criticizes the view that the meaning of a word or symbol is what it ________ _____.
From Quine, what are the two dogmas of modern empiricism?
Why, for Quine, is the myth of physical objects epistemologically superior to other myths (such as the myths of Homer’s Gods)?
According to Sartre, what is the first principle of existentialism?
What does Sartre think really happened when the Jesuit determined to enter the Jesuit order because he believed God’s hand was directing him that way?
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