Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
1. The most justified belief is the one we should accept as true (normative aspect)
2. The most justified belief is the one that provides the simplest explanations (descriptive aspect/ occams razor)
a. The simpler answer requires the lesser number of conditions
b. The simple answer takes into account the greater number of events
Know the definition of particulars and universals. Be able to identify or give examples.
Particulars: (1) The kinds of things we are able to sense (2) A patch of red on a piece of clothing
Universals: (1) Describes something which belongs (or could belong) to a number of different objects or facts
2. The redness I see in one path is the same as the redness I see in another, even though the two patches are different.
3. Other examples: Whiteness on the wall or paper
Humanity is Patrick
Why do the nominalists reject Platonic universals?
a. To admit that we have knowledge of universals is to admit that there can be knowledge of something beyond our senses
b. When we form the idea of whiteness, he first sense two or more white things and then determine what these things have in common.
a. To choose one white thing and then to draw a connection based on resemblance is to admit a universal resemblance
b. If whiteness is just an idea in our mind, then things would cease to be white if all minds are abolished. This seems to many (not all) to be an undesirable outcome.
How does Plato argue that nothing we sense is fully real?
a. Our senses deceive us
b. So an object must fluctuate between two qualities
c. Therefore, no one can quality can be fully ascribed to an object
d. If an object has no definite quality, then it is not fully/ truly real
e. If it;s not real we can't have knowledge of it
Remember again, recollect.
- We never learn anything without what it is we are trying to learn. Learning is the act of rediscovery
1. Level for the ordinary citizen is simply obedience to public laws, this relies on proper education
2. The highest virtue which consists not only in having the right moral code, but also in knowing why the code is good
-Whenever two things share a quality, one has a form.
-However, that thing and the form of that thing share the quality, so we must posit another form of that thing to account for this new common quality.
-Since we can continue to do this infinitely, there is an infinite number of forms
Either particulars participate in the forms, or the particulars are copies of the forms.
-If the form is in this world, then this world is not merely becoming.
- If it is only a copy, then the cosmos consists of two separate universes.
1. Plato's forms are immutable and motionless
2. If this world is a copy of the forms, then where does it get motion and change
3. Plato rejects that the forms contain some notion of motion within them
1. What is holy is what is pleasing to all gods
2. So that if something is pleasing to all the Gods then it is holy
3. And if something is pleasing then it is holy to all the gods
4. So being pleasing to all the gods is necessary and sufficient for being holy
5. Yet pleasing the gods is not the same thing as being holy
6. So we have yet to define holiness
1. If anyone is ever reminded of something, then he must have known that thing at some point in time previously
2. Whenever a thing reminds us of something similar, we compare the two.
3. Is there such thing as the concept of equality
1. Soul brings life to a body
2. The opposite of the soul is death
3. The soul will not admit death nor be dead
4. God, the soul, and the form of life and can't perish
5. So when the body dis, the soul goes to Hades to be judged
1. A man can not inquire about what he already knows since the inquiry would be fake.
2. But a man can't inquire about what he doesn't know since he lacks the necessary knowledge to seek answers
3. A man can never inquire
4. But a main can fail to remember
5. When a man finds the answer he is remembering
1. A proposition can not be both true and false at the same time
2. If two people explain to us how they experience something : They are both right, we can't say someone didn't experience something
a. He's right, she's wrong
b. She's right, he's wrong
c. They are both wrong
Complete definitions of form and matter
Anything that exist in the universe
Matter = stuff
Forum=arrangement of space
Can’t have one without the other.
A rock smashed into two pieces by a hammer still takes up space and is made of rock
Aristotle believed that basic materials were earth, air, fire and water.
Referring to flux, once you have reached ultimate matter. Flux is has no definite form.
Subject- The thing about which something is being said (truly or falsely)
Form: Sum of the predicates
Final Causes = the goal that the process is trying to reach
In order to exist, you must have a material component
Formal Cause= the laws the tells the object how to develop
Efficient cause = the things that impels the development (the sculptors chisel is necessary)
1. The material cause= matter (stone, metal, ect).
2. Formal cause= laws that tell the object how to develop (the instructions)
3. Efficient cause= the thing(s) that impels the development (the sculptors chisel is necessary)
4. Final Causes - the goal that the process is trying to reach
Mechanical- type of causation found in physics.
Teleological- motivated by a goal
Augustine says people never learn to do what?
According to Augustine, what is wrong with admitting that sins come from the souls that God created, and those souls come from God?
You are tracing the sins back to God
Augustine argues that what appears to be relativism is not relativism. Explain his thinking in one sentence.
Variations in laws and moral beliefs b/t different earthly communities are to be expected given the limitations imposed on those communities of fallen human nature.
Plato and St. Augustine seem to agree that true virtue is only possible when we focus on the what?
According to Augustine, since God foreknew the first person was going to sin, then that sin ___________ had to happen.
Augustine talks about God’s timelessness in Book 11 of what writing?
According to Anselm, it simply belongs to the definition of God that God has _________ existence.
According to Averroes, if the meaning of Scripture conflicts with demonstrative conclusions (science), [then Scripture] must be interpreted _____________ (or metaphorically). Therefore, Scripture can never be in conflict with science, (and it can never make fully sure scientific claims until science has confirmed them).
According to Maimonides, when the Bible uses phrases that are translated “seeing God,” this does not refer to physically seeing God, but to what kind of perception?
Explain Aquinas’s 4 kinds of law.
Eternal law, natural law, human law, and divine law
Aquinas notes that different peoples have somewhat different ideas about what is right and wrong; however, he believes that general moral principles are the same for all. So, what is the difference according to him?
Natural law (how you apply it in a real situation)
Bacon and Newton agree with what other philosopher who wrote that science is the discovery of causes?
it originated from a being with infinite perfection, and this being is God
Describe the two important Islamic philosophers of the Middle Ages
Avicenna (930-1037) From Northern Iran
-Neoplatonist who focused and wrote primarily on medicine.
-Followed Plato's teachings the most.
-changed the Latin philosophy world
-he did this by upholding Aristotle's teachings ( why he was right)
-he pushed away from the ideal world and towards science
William of Champaeux and his take on Form
He discusses the idea on Forms(Plato) and out does Plato.
-Came before Averroes
-Forms are stuff we sense and existed apart from the physical objects and minds
-Forms do not need to have physical counterparts(any idea you think about is real, not in existence but real)
-Out does Plato on the 2nd part
-Persuaded Latin world Aristotle is on to something
-We can have a general notion of whiteness w/o giving it a separate existence
- Color doesn't exist outside our minds
-Therefore, out general notions are derived from an inspection of physical objects and do not precede the inspection (general notion comes after your experience)
-Roscellinus found timely support from Averroes
COMBINES ARISTOTLE AND PLATO
Aquinas on forms
-Redefines Form: that which subsists, to have something real but dependent on something, in and only in the matter.
-The universe consists of matter and forms, The Creator unites matter with fixed forms
-Matter with qualities from the forms= physical objects
-Substantial form and accidental qualities
-The soul cannot "survive" the death of a body, unless it is provided with another
Substantial or accidental qualities
that which makes the object what it is (ex: a bottle- primary quality)
other qualities an object possesses (ex: a plastic bottle)
Aquinas on the soul after life
The soul cannot "survive" the death of a body, unless it is provided with another
Rationalists claims about knowledge
-All worth-while knowledge is contained by our reason
-the min is made with ready made faculties
-If a philsopher is good enough, he can deduce truths about the universe by proper thinking(a priori knowledge)
Rationalists claims about necessity and contingency (primarily from Leibniz)
Necessary facts are facts which we know in such way that the certainty of our knowledge is not increased by repetition.
-All facts are necessary
situation in which one event happens only after another event has already occured; one event is contingent on the other's occurence
the principle virtue of which we believe that no fact can be real or existing and no statement true unless
it has a sufficient reason why it should be as it is
-deduced this principle from the existence of God
-everything that existed was a center of spiritual experience and activity which he called a monad
-Every monad was a thought in the mind of God
-God regards all aspects of the universe in all possible manners
-The universe is not created by God’s choice, but by God’s nature.
- God’s nature doesn’t allow him to do what’s not necessary.
-Since God's thinking must be the best that is possible, it follows that everything in the world must be necessary as is.
1. John Locke (1632-1704) ENGLAND
2. George Berkeley (1685-1753)-Bishop/Teacher IRELAND
3. David Hume (1711-1776) SCOTTISH
Continental Rationalists (approximate dates)
1. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) FRANCE
2. George Leibnitz (1646-1716) GERMANY
3. Spinoza (1632-1677) ITALY
-THIS IS GOD
-So if I have an idea of perfection, God must exist
-Every contingent fact must have a cause
-Everything that exists must have an ultimate cause which completely explains and accounts for the thing, but is itself uncaused
-Kant's own belief in God arose from a consideration of the facts of human personality and the nature of moral experience
God is omnipotent and benevolent.
What is the Identity of Indiscernible?
If any two beings have exactly the same set of intrinsic and nonrelational properties, then they are indiscernible
Identity of Indiscernibles
any two beings have exactly the same set of intrinsic and nonrelational properties
Truth of reasoning: Necessary and the opposite is impossible
Truth of Fact: Contingent and the opposite is possible.
According to Leibniz, even though truth depends on God, this does not mean that truths are arbitrary or that truths depend on what?
What Aristotelian term designates a primary active force in things?
According to Anne Conway, body and soul are essentially not what?
Different kinds of things
18th cent empiricists took their cue from whom?
Measuring the differences
That one is not the other
The existence of things actually present to our senses
What do we know through intuition, what do we know through demonstration, and what do we know through sensation?
Why is the primary quality of a motion not inherent in an object?
1. A rapid motion involves the passing of an object through space in a given amount of time. 2.) Time is measured by succession of ideas in our mind, which varies. 3.) One motion may be perceived as rapid or slow.
Why are hardness or resistance both plainly relative to our senses?
What seems hard to one animal may appear soft to another, who hath greater force and firmness of limb.
Bare existence of the sensible world
Perceptions are two types: Ideas (thoughts) and impressions (feelings). An initial feature that distinguishes ideas from impressions is that ideas are less lively than impressions.
In his modified view of the “self” in his Appendix to the Treatise, Hume says there are two principles about the self that are true but inconsistent. What are these principles?
All our distinct perceptions are our distinct existences and the mind never perceives any real connection among distinct existences
The victim, offender, and the community members meet in a “tribal circle”
They discuss the impact of the crime and shame the offenders
They then implement a methodology for restoration
1. fertility maintenance
2. reproductive roles
3. physical strength
4. child care compatibility
NU (a vital essence) is in excess in females, but males tend to be dry.
Nu can be transferred by direct/indirect contact.
Gaining Nu over the years will make you feminine.
Childbirth etc. makes women Nu deficient and manly.
when one village/group gains much more money than it needs to subsist, it has a giant party, giving away items and food to even the wealth
Berkeley’s argument for God’s existence is based only on the existence of what? bare existence of the sensible world
Primary Qualities- We can think of these qualities as those with which mathematicians and geometers are chiefly concerned.
Secondary Qualities- these qualities can not only change but they can even vanish all together
-We do not know external things but the representations or copies of external things in our minds.
-we cannot get behind the primary qualities to know what causes those things to be, but there must be something that causes the primary qualities
For it to work, he requires at least three things:
1. our active Mind
2. the ideas the mind has
3. the external world which prompts those ideas
- the ideas we know, do, in fact, exist independently of our knowledge since they exist as ideas in the mind of God.
-This is how he is able to distinguish imagination and perception
He comes up with that there must be a mind that perceives all things always. This must be the mind of God.
ex: if a tree falls in a forest did it really fall
To Berkeley it still happens
1. We cannot have an idea of God b/c -our ideas are only obtained in sense experience
-we do not experience God by our senses directly or indirectly
2. We cannot assume God's existence b/c
-We cannot assume the existence of things we do not sense
-we do not sense God
Impressions: come to us by sensory experience(including passions and emotions)
Ideas: Images and perceptions, created by discourse and thinking built upon impressions= faint
- we know only in two ways
-analytic truths- the meaning of the predicate is contained in the meaning of the subject
-impressions are fragmentary
-but our mind is passive; it fails to draw connections
-instead we form an idea b/c the image, sound, smell, etc. occur at the same time
-like for Berkeley, Hume believe that what we perceive are not physical things, but isolated qualities
Critique of Pure (1781, 1787)
The world of reality is unknown.
-however, reality is experienced in other ways, notably in moral experience
-While he does not strictly have a metaphysic, his description will suggest that you live in two different worlds.
Everything is deducible; Knowledge of the world amounts to mathematical proofs= both necessary and analyzable
-Locke, Berkeley,and Hume
-There is no knowledge that is gained without the senses =synthetic knowledge
a world independent of our knowledge
-the categories give the things we know their universal attributes
-the empirical self- the self studied by the sciences(worlds wishes and desires; feelings and actions are pre-determined)
-the transcendental self- the source of moral experience
it's difficult to not take into account the consequences of our choices
-Truth belongs to only the Few
-Truth is Divinely Inspired
Truth comes to those who seek it
-The Divine is not necessary
We do not have knowledge of this world
-Knowledge of reality is negative knowledge
We can only have knowledge of this world
-But this world is in constant flux, so we have none
Knowledge comes from our souls
-Our souls come from another world
Knowledge comes through stripping away false claims
-Our goal is to find the essence of truth
Reacts to Plato, influenced by Epicurus and perhaps the atomists
-Knowledge comes through experience
Follow Plato or Aristotle (the Form of sweater for Aquinas, Aristotle, and Plato)
-Divinely given truth is foundational (creates a problem for Galileo)
The better explanation account for the most events
-The better explanation requires the fewest entities
Follows Thales: we can have truth without access to the Divine
The only thing that cannot be doubted are necessary truths
-Necessary truths must be contained in a mind, truths are substantive
-Since God is faithful, he will entrust these truths to my mind
-So reality exists, but the truths I know of it come directly from God
The only way that I can have these truths directly from God without error is if I am God
-If I am God, then it must be the case that all is God - Pantheism
Responds to Descartes and Leibnitz
-Leibnitz metaphysical view is correct, except that monads are an unnecessary postulation (following Occam’s Razor)
-But then this means that knowledge comes after experience with this world, it is not somehow borne first in our minds
Responds to Locke
-Locke’s view is largely correct, but substance and the qualia distinction are unnecessary postulations
Responds to Berkeley
-Berkeley’s view is largely correct, but God, self and enumerative inductions are unnecessary presumptions.
Alarmed by the force of Hume’s insight
Believed that our phenomenal experiences will eventually bring us to reality, through the process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis
-We eventually realize our divinity
It is not we who can become or reach God, but we are such that God must reach us with His truths
2. This requires a leap of faith, an exercise of free will
3. Faith becomes crucial for William James (early 20th cent.) and Alvin Plantinga (modern)
God is a mere construct, we have made Him and killed Him
-Therefore, we must use that free will to create our own reality
-Non-sensible metaphysical truths simply cannot be known
To know that metaphysical truths cannot be known is to know a non-sensible metaphysical truth
-We must understand language and logic to retrieve basic truths of the universe
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!