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IF its premises were true, its conclusion would have to be true
a valid argument doesn’t have to have true premisses
you have to want what you get in order for it to make your life better
-developed by Lenin during the Russian Revolution of 1917
-called for soviet people control of the state, it denounced liberals and social democrats in the provincial government (socialism)
-contributed to the July days uprising and overthrowing of provisional gov
-peace, land, bread (appeals to people)
-end to private property, land dist for localized econ
-The following year (1915) far less truces were arranged due to orders from high command, after the battles of Somme and Verdun as well as the use of poison gas and other war atrocities, soldiers viewed the other side as inhuman and no more truces were sought
-Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1877
-Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company dissolved
-title was to link the monarchy with the empire further and bind India more closely to Britain. key indian leaders supported her
-New imperialism – period of colonial expansion and conquest in the 19th and 20th centuries, built empires with new technology and exploited resources"Marshall our empire story told to children"
· Might not even be true, GENDER DISTINCTIONS
-Written by Mary Shelley in 1818
-Warning that you need to consider human emotions, thoughts and feelings a
-Related to romanticism which focuses on nature and spirituality, a balanced reason and feeling from the heart (instinct)
-Issued anonymously, it questioned the divine!
-Creature teaches himself, needs community and human relationship/acceptance
-dangers of science and tecnhonoly
-Baron Haussmann chosen to renovate Paris commissioned by Emperor Napoléon III
-Demolition of crowded and unhealthy medieval neighborhoods, the building of wide avenues, parks and squares, the annexation of the suburbs surrounding Paris, and the construction of new sewers, fountains and aqueducts.
-Related to Nation Building and Empire, Museum to show off stolen items
-Louis- Philippe, bourgeois is the middle classes which owns the means of production
-he wants to give the people someone they can identify with, he carries around an umbrella with him to seem like he is one of them
- “King of the French” Restricted by a constitution and legislative assembly, this is all a part of the revolution of liberty; By the grace of god and constitutional law of the state 1830-48
-Ended traditional rights of an open field system
-Since people couldn’t sustain a family, this led to rapid urbanization
-Related to the industrial revolution and the textile industry in England
-Following enclosure, crop yields and livestock output increased while at the same time labor productivity increased enough to create a surplus of labor.
-Lenin’s health was bad in 1920s, Stalin takes this title and elevated the office to overall command of the Communist Party and by extension the whole Soviet Union
-Why communism? Need for reason after the horrible experience that was WWI
-Soviet control consolidates, ideas of totalitarianism and supervision
-Renaissance humanism – involves critical thinking and evidence over traditional teachings, becoming not being, change,
gender roles are unfixed and fluid rather than lines
-Essais – new genre of experimental writing and sharing of short stories
-Took a leap and her genitals fell out, OBSERVATON. she ended up being successful
-A policy that increased institutional openness in the soviet union in the late 80s,
-reform Introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev
-Less censorship and more freedom of information, aimed to reduce corruption at the top of the communist party
-Perestroika is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system.
-private boats that sailed from England to Dunkirk in France in spring of 1940 to rescue soldiers trapped on beaches
-The rescue operation turned a military disaster into a story of heroism which served to raise the morale of the British.
·French were bitter since the boats prioritized British soldiers, they felt betrayed
· Place of pilgrimage in France where people went to be healed
· literally in the middle of nowhere, Virgin Mary was said to have appeared multiple times.
· Trains started to be build where people wanted to go,
· Popular piety – religious expression nurtured by the people without the guidance of clerical hierarchy i.e. nativity scenes,
-In 1972 Paxton wants to research more on vichy france and France doesn’t let him see records but Germany had taken good records and saved letters from the French during time period.
-French had offered to round up Jews to stay in good standing with Germany who they thought would be running Europe.
-Vichy government was eager to collaborate with Nazi Germany and did not practice "passive resistance" to German rule.
-Louis the XIV, comes into power when he was 4 years old
-During the absolutism period in France.
-Cardinal Mazarin prepared the throne for the young king.
-Grows up not trusting the nobility and is named the playboy king because he is more interested in party life rather than political and economical aspect of things.
-industrial revolution in England
-invented due to progression of technology and speed of producing textiles.
-The flying shuttle was first created to speed the weaving process, after came the spinning jenny and this made it possible to spin more than one cone of thread at a time. Pressure was back on the weavers and the power loom was created and powered by water to speed up the weaving process.
-job security "the woolen works petition"
Paris commune in france (working class 1871) adopts Marxism/communism. Lenin says it’s a successful form of this government. Flag of commune is red and is where communism gets its red color from. Three parts of government are: people are in charge, reaplce army with arming the people, gov officials replaced with rule of the people (this is ideal soviet government, Lenin says)
-Behind Louis XIII when he was crowned king at the age of 9. 1606
-Cardinal Richelieu has the authority of the church and monarchy behind him to help Louis become king, reinforced absolutism
-By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state.
-Leader in 30 years war
wants to make a more centralized government by taking power from the nobles -ABSOLUTISM
-Singapore is a British fortification, all the parts facing the water were well defended, they were attacked from the land, the Japanese used bicycles to get through the jungles
-Indian soldiers fought on both sides, some wanted to fight against the British so they joined the Japanese
Non white troops could match western soldiers 1942
-During industrialization, change in working and living conditions, proletarianization, and there was a debate in the role of government.
-three responses to the social question.
First: social novel, which was middle class writers trying to convince the rest of the middle class to care about middle class issues of the time.
Second: Utopian Socialism, which was the idea of going back to agrarian society
Third: worker unrest, protesting conditions
-Term in German means “special unit”
-Working units in Nazi death camps compiled mostly of Jews.
-They were forced to clear out gas chambers and dispose of the dead bodies in crematories
-If they did not do this they would be put to death anyways.
-making jews cary out final solution FUBAR
-World War I changed the daily lives of the women because there was more work for them to do in factories.
-They worked assembling munition and guns for the soldiers.
-A Tommy is a trench soldier
-Total war, after the war participated in job market, less domestic role of women
-1848 widespread political upheaval across Europe.
-Started in France spread through many other countries Germany, Poland, Italy. The revolutions did not reach Russian or England however.
-Working class people displaced from their homes because they have lost their jobs due to crop failure.
-The liberals want expansion on rights and power. By 1852, the liberals have failed.
-Revolutions are everywhere, but there is no revolutionary change.
(act(calculate every time) or rule(rules of thumb to guide)) the consequence to be evaluated are those that affect individual well being
Based on classical hedonism which states: the only intrinsically positive is pleasure and the only intrinsically negative is pain/suffering
-has an objective view of well being
-and subjective view of well being
-maximize pleasure and minimize pain (maximizing hedonic utility)
-Happiness has the most intrinsic value
Fecundity: tendency for an act to produce similar results in the future
(IDCR are affects) (FP are actions)(E is number of people) I Dont Care Rally For Peace Everywhere
experiment → data/results → incorporate results into a theory
thought experiment → intellectual intuitions → integrate into theory
· Stolen land???
· Assumes that there really was an initial state of nature
· Assumes that property rights are absolute
· Gives luck too great a role in determining which outcomes are just
· Leads to enormous inequalities in wealth and therefore power
1. Immoral behavior causes disintegration of society
2. The State is justified in preventing any behavior that causes society to disintegrate
3. Thus, the State is justified in preventing immoral behavior
o Definition 1: A complete breakdown of political authority
§ The state is justified under the harm principle in preventing D1, but Devlin provides no evidence that private immorality causes D1.
o Definition 2: A change to society’s moral code
§ Private immorality may well lead to a change in society’s moral code (D2), but why is the government justified in preventing this?
The government may not limit a person’s liberty in ways that impose a burden on her that is substantially worse than the worst burden anyone would bear in the absence of this policy
1. Drug use is very harmful to users themselves
2. We are (sometimes, if risk of harm to self is very high) justified in limiting people’s liberty to prevent them from harming themselves
3. Therefore, we are justified in criminalizing drugs
· Recreational drugs are arguably only dangerous because they are illegal/unregulated/more potent
· Drug use is arguably less harmful to users than many things we do not criminalize (cigarettes, alcohol, fatty foods)
· Only a small portion of those who try drugs become addicts
· The claim that addicts lack autonomy is controversial – addicts still choose to keep using
A Harm-Based Argument for Criminalization/Prohibition
· Drug manufacture/sale/use are very harmful to others (cause violence, criminal behavior, lost productivity)
· We are justified in limiting people’s liberty to prevent them from harming others
· Therefore, we are justified in prohibiting drug manufacture/sale and in criminalizing use
· Alcohol and tobacco are similarly indirectly harmful to non-users, but they aren’t criminalized or prohibited
· Is it drug use or drug prohibition that causes violence?
1. Drug prohibition harms both users and non-users more than legalization would
2. If a restriction on individual liberty is more harmful that the activity it restricts, that restriction is unjustified
3. Drug prohibition is unjustified
1. A person is properly sovereign over his or her body/mind/life
2. Thus, they have a right to determine what happens to their minds/bodies, as long as no direct harm to others occurs
3. Recreational use does not directly harm others
4. Thus people, have a right to use recreationally
5. If one has a right to do something, it shouldn’t be illegal to do it
Criminalization threatens autonomy, but prohibition does not
Legalization is likely to lead to higher rates of drug abuse, but prohibition decreases drug abuse even if drugs are decriminalized (by making them harder to obtain)
· Even if prohibition is consistent with self sovereignty, it still interferes with the exercise of individual rights in two ways:
o Makes it harder and more expensive for users to exercise their presumed right to use
o Prevents some people from operating the business of their choice
o Are we justified in making some individuals bear this burden for the greater good?
Hate speech (def. 1)- speech that expresses strong hatred, contempt, or intolerance for some social group, particular social groups classified according to race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, disability, or nationality
Hate speech (def. 2)- verbal or symbolic harassment of members of traditionally excluded groups, especially by means of traditional symbols of oppression
Lawrence on the harms of hate speech
· Causes immediate psychological injury (traumatic stress)
· Causes justifiable fear of violence
· Threatens equal educational opportunities
· Silences members of minority groups
· Undermines self-esteem
· Injures reputations (libelous)
· Society should allow people to express any opinion no matter how controversial, crazy, unpopular, offensive, etc.
· Social utility/value of free speech- the opinions society seeks to censor (“unpopular opinions”)…
o May turn out to be true
o May contain some important insight even if they are false
o Force those who disagree to defend their own views, in the process learning the reasons for/against
o Prevent the majority view from becoming dogma
· Censorship robs the human race of opportunities for knowledge and for individual development
· The ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas… that the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market”
· Only justifies protection of speech that expresses opinions
· In a free market, the best products do not always win
· Hate speech is un-deserving of First Amendment protection for 3 main reasons:
1. Hate speech causes direct psychological injury.
2. Because it functions to silence minorities, it ill-serves the purpose of the First Amendment ‘to foster the greatest amount of speech.’
3. By creating hostile environment, it threatens equal educational opportunities
Four qualities of the state of nature
1. Equality of human need
2. Relative scarcity of goods
3. Equality of human power
4. Limited human altruism
1. In the state of nature, it is always in our interest to defect, never to cooperate (“prepare for war”)
2. Psychological egoism is true – individuals are motivated solely by self-interest
3. Thus, cooperation in the state of nature is impossible
4. Cooperation is in everyone’s interest
5. Therefore, it is in everyone’s interest to avoid the state of nature and establish the State
· It is questionable if psychological egoism is true
· It is questionable if the state of nature would actually be like a one-off prisoner’s dilemma instead of an iterated prisoner’s dilemma
· The players play the prisoner’s dilemma more than once
· The players remember previous actions by opponent
· The number of rounds is random/unknown
What is the optimal strategy for a psychological egoist?
· Cooperate unless provoked
· If provoked, retaliate
· Be quick to forgive
· If (and only if) you have a good chance of competing against the same opponent again
·Inequalities can make everyone better off
o i.e. Inequalities in income/wealth are OK, but inequalities in liberty are not
· Rawls still has egalitarian elements because he places limits as to how much inequality can be allowed
o i.e. inequalities must be to everyone’s advantage, be consistent with the Liberty Principle, and be compatible with fair equality of opportunity
utilitarianism only looks at the whole, but it does not consider if the distribution is fair
o Utilitarianism allows rules that make some worse off in order to make others better off
o Such a trade off is not rational to parties in the original position
lockean libertarianism leads to massive inequalities that are not to everyone’s advantage
o Allows some to amass huge fortunes with no obligation to share
o The outcome depends largely on luck rather than merit
The difference principle is unjust because it requires constant interference with individuals’ property rights
1. End-state principles require constant redistribution of holdings
2. Redistribution violates some people’s entitlement rights
a. Forces some people to labor on behalf of others
b. Violates self-ownership
3. Any principle which violates rights is unjust
4. Therefore, end-state principles are unjust
S deserves X if S worked hardest to earn X
· Person A has an entitlement right to item X if and only if A acquired X via an “approved” process:
1. Original acquisition- X was unowned and A took it out of the state of nature
2. Voluntary transfer- B had an entitlement right to X and voluntarily transferred that right to A
3. Rectification of past injustice- A is owed X due to some past injustice
o We have general obligations not to violate people’s rights, but need does not give one a right to others’ wealth
o As a society, we have an obligation to make the basic structure work to the advantage to the least well off, but Rawls is silent on our obligations as individuals
1. Suffering and death from malnutrition and disease are very bad
2. By donating to aid agencies, many of those bad tings could be prevented without sacrificing anything nearly as important
3. Singer’s Principle
4. Therefore, affluent people have an obligation to generously donate to aid agencies
· Property rights objection: the affluent are entitled to use their wealth as they choose, thus there is no obligation to give to famine relief
o Objection: Affluent societies benefitted from past injustices
o Objection: Entitlements are not absolute – obligation to “give back” to society
§ The main cause of famine is overpopulation
§ Aid increases food supply and allows population to grow unchecked
§ Thus, aid leads to global catastrophe
o Continued population growth is a very bad thing
o Can be prevented by allowing people to die in famines
o Singer’s principle
o Therefore, the affluent have an obligation not to contribute to famine relief
o Main cause of famine is not overpopulation, but mal-distribution
o Famine drives up birth-rates, contributes to population growth
o How to slow population growth: economic development, social security, opportunities for women
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