Philosophy 1100: Intro to Ethics
- University of Missouri- Columbia
- Philosophy 1000
- Philosophy 1100: Intro to Ethics
Last Modified: 2016-03-08
-Reasons: for acting the way you do
-Impartiality: treating everyone as equals
C There are no objective moral "truths"
bad argument: just b/c ppl disagree about which moral principle ppl ought to adopt doesn't mean that there is no objective truth to the matter. Ex earth is round
2. We cant rationally criticize seemingly immoral customs and practices of our own society ex. capital punishment
3. No moral progress
1. All societies must have certain basic moral values
2. All societies do in fact share certain basic moral values
Ex. value honesty, human life, happiness, protect certain basic human rights w/o those values no functional society
omnipotent- all powerful
omniscient- all knowing
2. It is easy to figure out what is right and wrong (consult God or religious txts)
3. The possible threat of being punished by God (in the after life) motivates people to live morally good lives
DCT: God wills what is right or wrong and that action is right or wrong merely because God said so.
Ex. one ought not violate the basic rights of others (God cannot violate this), 2+2=4
Hedonism: whether an action is right or wrong depends solely on how much happiness it yields as a consequence; everything is irrelevant. Hedonism: the only kind of moral value that exists is happiness
Impartiality: Each persons happiness is equally valuable, should treat each other equally
Lower: feeling satiated, feeling rested, orgasm, feeling physically healthy
P2 Gay marriage maximizes happiness better than any available alternative
C Gay marriage should be leaglized in the US
2. It explains why some things are obviously wrong- child molestation, rape (causing unnecessary harm)
3. It requires us to care about the welfare of others (essential to a moral theory)
Act, particular maxim, universal maxim, self-defeating? if yes then morally wrong. Ex. Gary rapes an MU student
Treat someone as an end: treat someone in a way that does respect what he/she thinks is in his/her own best interest (consentual sex)
2. Explains why pre-mature death is so tragic (disease, accident, etc)
3. This explanation is consistent with morally permissible voluntary action euthanasia
C It is prima facie morally wrong to kill fetuses
Objection: Does not make sense to say that you can deprive someone of something unless that being has a right to that thing. Marquis is assuming fetuses have the basic right to a valuable FLO.
3. self-motivated activity
4. the capacity to communicate by whatever means, msgs of an indefinite variety of types
5. the presence of self concepts, self awareness
C We have a moral obligation to donate $200.
Kantian: support because you can universalize principle
P1 Drug use is very harmful to users
P2 The government should prohibit people from doing things that harm themselves
C Therefore the gov't should legally prohibit recreational drug use
Harm to others:
P1 Rec. drug users harm society as a whole because they may become irresponsible family members, friends, coworkers, and citizens as a result of using drugs
P2 The gov't should prohibit activ. that result in harming society as a whole
C The gov't should prohibit rec. drug use
Harm to others: Howard the dead beat who already is irresponsible not as a result of drugs. Drug users only MAY do these things
P2 The government should protect (not violate) citizen's rights
C The government should not legally prohibit the recreational use of drugs
-Reply: no less harmful than other things we allow
C Homosexuality is morally wrong
2. Violates the laws of nature
4. Uncommon and abnormal
Women: Women have a duty to make their considered preferences about sex clear to their potential partners
1. undully punishes men when women are no less responsible
2. risk of having arbitrary guilty judgments (against men) due to the vagueness of the concept of "impaired"
3. Men would not have fair warning to conform their behavior to the law
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