Epicurus thinks an important key to happiness lies in natural science because...
a. it leads to technological breakthroughs that enhance the quality of life
b. it can show us that some of our fears are unfounded
c. knowledge is something good in itself
d. we should aim to keep our wills in harmony with nature
a. recommends pursuing every pleasure, so as to maximize the happiness in life
b. is a doctrine that disparages pleasure and recommends virtue as the key to happiness
c. is compatible with denying oneself many pleasures
d. has nothing to say about pain, fear, or sorrow
According to Epicurus, someone who thinks happiness is pleasure and the absence of pain will
a. be unjust to others, if it will increase pleasure for oneself
b. indulge her every desire
c. be an untrustworthy friend
d. be content with having little
a. believes that our happiness or unhappiness is entirely within our own control
b. says "grin and bear it," no matter how unhappy something makes you
c. cares for no one and nothing but his own freedom and happiness
d. prefers nothing, shuns nothing, and is indifferent to everything
When stoics advise us to keep our wills in harmony with nature, they:
a. mean that if something feels natural to us, we should "go with the flow" and "just do it!"
b. deny God
c. contradict Plato and Aristotle, who emphasize living in accord with reason.
d. are in effect advising us to do our duty
A stoic thinks we should:
a. seek virtue more than happiness
b. never seek pleasure as an end
c. always be virtuous, because virtue produces the greatest pleasure
d. be skeptical of all claims to know what virtue is
a skeptic will:
a. assert that nothing can be known
b. assert that we can know only the contents of our own minds
c. suspend judgement about what reality is like
d. refuse to ask why
With respect to the question, "Does a criterion of truth exist?" the skeptic:
a. asserts with Xenophanes of Colophon that it does not.
b. claims that an infinite regress is the only criterion available
c. engages in circular reasoning to prove the existence of a criterion
d. suspends judgement
St Paul taught that:
a. the soul is essentially good, and salvation consists in becoming aware of who you are
b. Jesus and Socrates are much alike, men of virtue whom it would be wise to imitate
c. the will is in conflict with itself and we cannot save ourselves
d. unless we live good lives, we cannot inherit the kingdom of Heaven
a. agrees with socrates that virtue is knowledge
b. agrees with Socrates that the explanation for wrongdoing is ignorance
c. agrees with Saint Paul that our wills are divided and that we cannot heal ourselves
d. agrees that the self-reliance of the Stoic is the key to happiness
Augustine was attracted to the Manicheans because they:
a. seemed to deal with the problem of evil in a rational manner
b. held that there is one God, omnipotent, omniscient, and perfectly good.
c. took the scriptures literally
d. thought, as Augustine himself did, that will was more fundamental than intellect.
Augustine solves the problem of natural evil by:
a. feeding the hungry and providing for the poor
b. accepting that there is, always has been, and always will be an evil power in conflict with the good.
c. arguing that without evil there couldn't be any good.
d. denying that evil is a positive reality
In meditating on the puzzling nature of time, Augustine concludes that:
a. time is an illusion and only God's eternity exists.
b. neither the past nor the future nor the present can have any reality at all
c. time came into being with the creation
d. god endures through all past and future time, as well as in the present
Sin, according to Augustine, is:
a. having disordered loves
b. not to be attributed to babies, who are truly innocent
c. something that just happens to us, a fate we cannot help
d. a mistake we make when we don't know better.
Citizens of the heavenly city:
a. have dual citizenship
b. have lives of quiet perfection, in contrast to the citizens of the earthly city
c. pursue peace, in contrast with the citizens of the earthly city
d. are those who have died and gone to heaven
a. moves from existence to essence
b. presupposes that God exists
c. starts from essence and ends with existence
d. begins with premises derived from Christian faith
Reason and Revelation, Aquinas holds,
a. are irreconcilably in conflict
b. are two compatible sources of truth
c. cannot deal with the same topics
d. both depend on faith for their validation
The argument for God's existence from change:
a. claims that every change is a transition from actuality to potentiality
b. assumes that something can be simultaneously both potentially hot and actually hot.
c. assumes that changes can be traced back to infinity
d. argues that without a first cause there would be no intermediate causers of change
in the argument from possibility and necessity, Aquinas reasons that:
a. since at one time nothing existed, something must have come from nothing.
b. not every being could be a merely possible being.
c. every being is a necessary being, otherwise there would be an infinite regress
d. some necessary beings have their being caused by merely possible beings
In the Aristotle-Ptolemy-Dante picture of the world,
a. heaven is understood to be quite literally up above us.
b. space is thought to be infinite
c. the sun is located at the very center of the created universe
d. human beings are thought to be insignificant in comparison with the glories of the celestial bodies
a. intensify the otherworldliness embedded in medieval culture by emphasizing that human perfection is possible only in the life to come.
b. see clearly that a good human life, as represented in the classics, is incompatible with Christianity.
c. celebrate the human being as the central fact in all the created world
d. tend to be pessimistic about humanity's prospects
a. speaks of man as "maker and molder" of himself.
b. upholds the Church as the legitimate interpreter of Scripture, lest chaos results from individual opinions
c. leaves the Church, resigning his priesthood in disgust over the selling of indulgences.
d. stresses the grace of God and the inability of human beings to save themselves.
Among the rules of Descartes' method is the following:
a. Doubt only what you have clear and distinct, conclusive reason for doubting
b. multiply possibilities lest you miss a plausible alternative
c. accept only what an authoritative source reveals
d. make comprehensive reviews
In the Meditions, Descartes aims to:
a. establish the irrelevance of God to modern physics
b. show that the soul is identical with the body
c. provide a firm foundation for knowledge
d. prove that first philosophy is founded on a mistake
We ought to doubt our senses, Descartes says, because:
a. they sometimes deceive us
b. we don't understand God's purposes
c. there exists an evil deceiver intent on leading us astray
d. we are dreaming
The result of Descartes' methodical doubt is that:
a. he knows nothing
b. he knows he is a rational animal
c. he doubts his own existence
d. he finds something that can indicate a criterion for knowledge
Descartes' first argument for God's existence, in Mediation 3:
a. is a causal argument
b. moves directly from the idea of God to God's existence
c. relies on the principle that everything must originally have come from nothing
d. makes use of the idea that there must be an infinite regress to guarantee infinite perfection
Descartes argues that material things exist by:
a. pointing out that not only can we see them, but we can touch them as well
b. relying on the fact that our senses do not always deceive us.
c. showing that even if the evil demon deceives us, it still seems to us as though they do exist
d. claiming that if they did not exist, God would be deceiver
Descartes thinks it is important to prove the existence of God because:
a. otherwise many people would not believe
b. you should not trust the scriptures to tell you the truth
c. otherwise you couldn't be sure of anything but your own existence
d. it is an essential bulwark for a pious life.
For what kinds of pains does Epicurus believe there is a remedy? And what is it?
beliefs about the gods and beliefs about death. These pains fill us with dread because we always fear that the gods will punish us or curse us, and we always fear death because we believe we will go to Hades, etc. The remedy is simply by changing these beliefs.
Given that Epicureans think pleasure is the sole good, why do they praise moderation?
Because by pleasure they meant the body is free from pain and the mind from anxiety; not to indulge themselves in every physical pleasure. They believe that we must make a distinction between desires: natural and vain, then in the natural you divide it into necessary or merely natural. The necessary desires are what bring true pleasure (for life, for ease, for happiness). Epicurus recommends the simple life.
Explain the skeptical "problem of the criterion"
If one claims to "know" something, then in order to prove they know it they must depend on a certain criterion of knowledge, which in order to be a valid criterion must depend on another criterion to prove it can be known, and so on and so on until we fall either into infinite regress or circular reasoning, both of which we must suspend judgement.
What does it mean when the skeptic recommends that we "suspend judgment"? About what? why? And will that be good for us?
due to the inability to find a criterion for truth, one must accept that we cannot either affirm or deny any proposition about the real nature of the underlying objects. We can't say yes or no. Therefore, we must suspend our judgement. According to the skeptics, this can be good for us because we don't live our lives looking for the "certain" because we won't find it. If we can't find it we will be perturbed, if we are perturbed we won't be happy, and, therefore, to be happy we must stop looking for the certainty of things.
What insight into human nature does Augustine draw from the incident of stealing the pears?
It shows us that we are prideful and that pride is the root of the human predicament. Augustine wanted to steal the pears to do something forbidden so as to in a perverted sort of way imitate God. He wanted to partake in a liberty that belongs only to God (doing what you please with no regards to authority). It also shows that we will do bad things to try and bring about good things. He stole the pears to have the companionship of his friends.
State "the problem of evil"
The problem of evil can be stated in the form of a syllogism:
1. God created all things
2. Evil is a thing
3. Therefore, God created evil.
If God is omnipotent, omnibenevolent, and omniscient, and evil exists, then God must be the creator of it. If he weren't, then he can't be any of those things.
Explain the idea of the Great Chain of Being:
Being consists of good. The more good something has in it, the more being, or existence it contains. God is the most pure being that exists because he contains the most good. If something has little good than it has less being. Evil, therefore, is the complete lack of goodness.
How does the notion of the Great Chain of Being help Augustine to solve the problem of evil?
It shows that evil is not in existence but is the lack of existence. It is the lack of being, and, therefore, it is the lack of good. So if evil doesn't exist, then God didn't create it, and, therefore, God can be omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent.
The Argument from Change:
In order for something to change, or go from potentially being something to actually being something, the change can only be brought about by something that is already actual. And so for something to change it must be changed by another thing, and so on and so on, until we get to the first cause of change. This first cause of change is God. There must be a first cause of change because if there wasn't then there would be no intermediate changers, and, therefore, no change would occur.
The Argument from Efficient Causality:
God is the first cause of all the effects. Think of the car that has been rear-ended by a car that was also rear-ended by a car that was also rear-ended, and so on and so forth. There must be a first car to have caused all the collisions, because if there wasn't, then no one would have started it, and if no one started it, it would not have happened.
The Argument from Possibility to Necessity:
There are some things that don't need to be (things that were created and can be destroyed) but not all things can be like this. If everything were like this then at one time nothing would have existed. But this can't be the case because it is obvious that things exist, and, therefore, there must be something that has to exist, they simply must be. So eventually, of the things that are necessary beings, there has to exist something that must be period in order for all other things to exist. This necessary being is God.
The Argument from Grades of Goodness in Things:
There are some things that are comparatively better, truer, or more excellent than other things. The things that that vary in excellence do so because of how close they are to their superlative. For example something is hotter the closer it is to fire. Now, the thing that is most fully possessing a common property causes it in others. So there must be something that causes in all other things their being, their goodness, etc. And this is what we call God.
The Argument from the Guidedness in of Nature or the Argument from design:
There are things that exist in nature that happen as if they were planned rationally. For example, a dog that grows its winter coat to be warm for the winter. The dog certainly didn't plan to grow this, so there must exist some intelligible being that plans to achieve these goals for them. This being is God.
Where is hell, in the picture Dante gives us, and what do the various circles of hell represent?
hell is found in the center of the earth, what is furthest away from God. The seven circles of hell represent the severity of punishments which correspond certain sins.
What is the disagreement between Luther and the Church basically about?
Luther argues that salvation does not have to be earned but is a gift from God. Indulgences offended Luther because it was a mockery of the gift that God freely gives us by saying that we can pay for it with worldly money. Luther also rejects the idea of papal authority for interpreting the scriptures. Luther believed that the Bible is the only "divine authority" and is what he uses to argue against the church. He believed that Scripture is above the Pope.
State the four rules of Descartes' method, the method that he thinks will allow us to make intellectual progress:
1. Never accept anything as true without having evident knowledge of its truth
2. divide each of the difficulties examined into as many parts as possible and as may be required in order to resolve them better.
3. begin with the simplest and most easily known objects and go step by step to the more complex
4. make many enumerations and reviews to be sure nothing is left out.
To what certainty does Descartes' methodical doubt lead? What makes him think he is right about that?
He comes to the conclusion that "I think, therefore, I am." He thinks that he is right, because even if the great deceiver were trying to deceive him, he is still thinking about that fact, and because he is thinking about that fact, he must be a thinking thing, and, therefore, must exist. Even doubting that he is thinking proves that he is thinking and that he exists.
Why does Descartes feel a need to inquire about the existence and nature of God?
Because in order to have certainty on anything outside of his own existence, he must know that God exists and is not a deceiver. Because if God exists and is not a deceiver than the material world must exist because God would not deceive us.
How does the conviction that God is not a deceiver help Descartes to establish the reality of an external, material world?
Because if God is not a deceiver, than the creations he has made wouldn't be deceptions either.
philosophical position that I alone exist or I alone am conscious
The idea that the mind and body are independent of each other but can casually interact with each other. The cause of one can be the effect of the other.
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