What is the importance of the light-independent reactions in terms of carbon flow in the biosphere?
The light-independent reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars.
True or false? The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis use water and produce oxygen.
Which of the following molecules is the primary product of photosystem I?
What is the biological significance of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
They convert carbon dioxide to sugar.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
The light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by the light-independent reactions.
Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?
Regneration of RuBP
_____ has a longer wavelength than _____.
Red ... green
Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?
True or false? The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the synthesis of ATP generates a proton gradient that leads to electron flow through an electron transport chain.
According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?
Which of the following particles can pass through the ATP synthase channel?
True or false? The region of ATP synthase that catalyzes the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate spans the chloroplast membrane.
Chloroplast membrane vesicles are equilibrated in a simple solution of pH 5. The solution is then adjusted to pH 8. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these experimental conditions?
ATP will not be produced because there is no ADP and inorganic phosphate in the solution.
Carbon fixation involves the addition of carbon dioxide to _____.
How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP to make a single molecule of glucose?
In the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?
Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
The Calvin cyle occurs in the______
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.
water ... NADPH
At what arrow is light energy transformed into chemical energy?
Between chemiosmosis and ATP
Where do the excited electrons flowing through photosystem I originally come from?
A newly identified plant virus infects and kills its host by inserting large protein channels into thylakoid membranes, creating permanent holes. Which arrow would you cross out to represent the effect of these holes?
Between photosystem II and chemiosmosis
Under what conditions will cells use fermentation pathways?
When an ETC electron acceptor is not available.
A newly developed insecticide compound steals high-energy electrons from FADH2 and NADH before they can bind to the electron transport chain. Why does this kill insects?
The ETC cannot establish a proton gradient to drive chemiosmotic production of ATP.
You are interested in identifying mutant yeast cells that have impaired or broken ETC proteins. What phenotype would you look for to find those mutant cells?
Look for cells that grow at similar rates with or without oxygen.
Which of the following statements about the Calvin cycle is correct?
The Calvin cycle produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate( G3P)3-phosphoglycerate, which can be used to make glucose.
How do C4 plants differ from C3 and CAM plants?
C4 plants fix carbon dioxide away from the site of the Calvin cycle.
True or false? Photorespiration differs from the Calvin cycle in that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is released.
Which five-carbon molecule binds to carbon dioxide during the Calvin cycle?
Through which structures do carbon dioxide and water enter plants?
How do CAM plants use carbon efficiently in hot, dry climates?
They open their stomata only at night when it is cooler.
In C3 plants the conservation of water promotes _____.
In C4 and CAM plants carbon dioxide is fixed in the _____ of mesophyll cells.
C4 plants differ from C3 and CAM plants in that C4 plants _____.
transfer fixed carbon dioxide to cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs
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