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Vander's Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function with ARIS (HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY (VANDER))
What is the recommended intake of lipids?
What is the Kcal of lipids yielded?
Saturated and trans fatty acids create a higher risk for ____
Lipids are ___ to good health
True or False: Lipids do readily dissolve in water
False, lipids do not readily dissolve in water
What are the types of lipids?
Tryglycerids, phosopholipids, and sterols (cholesterol)
Which main type of lipid is composed of three types of fatty acids bonded with glycerol?
lipids that are solid at room temp. are called ____
lipids that are liquid at room temp. are called ___
Where can you find triglycerides?
in our body and in food
Saturated fatty acids are found in the ____ form
Unsaturated fatty acids are found in the _____ form
Fats are composed of both ____ and ____
saturated and unsaturated
the carbon bonds that are connected to each other by single bonds is known as ____
saturated fatty acids
the carbon bonds that are double bonds are said to be ____
unsaturated fatty acids
A fatty acid with one double bond is ____
A fatty acid with two or more carbon bonds is___
If the first double bond starts three carbons from the methyl end of the fatty acid it is _____
If the first double bond starts six carbons from the methyl end of the fatty acid it is ___
_______ is the majory omega-3 fatty acid.
_____is the major omega-6 fatty acid
What are the essential fatty acids we need to consume?
Omega-3 and Omega-6
essential fatty acids help the functions of what?
immune, vision, cell membrane, and production of hormone-like compounds
What is the most common form of triglycerides to be found in?
fats and oils
Removing one fatty acid from a triglyceride forms ___
Removing two fatty acids from a triglyceride forms ____
What is built on the glycerol backbone?
When one fatty acid is replaced with a compound containing phosphorous it is what kind of fatty acid?
A ____ allows oil and water to mix and in found in the phosopholipid
The phospholipid is apart of the _____
Where is phospholipids found?
in wheat germ, peanuts, yolks, soy beans, and organ meat
A multi ring structure and is waxy is ___
This fatty acid does not have a glycerol backbone and is not readily dissolved in water, what is it?
What is a common example of a sterol?
What is only found in animal food?
Cholesterol is the essential component of ______
the cell membrane
Cholesterol is produced by the ____
Cholesterol forms important ____ and _____ and is incorporated into the cell
hormones and bile acids
What are some of the important hormones cholesterol produces?
estrogen, and testosterone
What are some whole foods that have about 80% fat calorie intake?
bologna, avocados, and bacon
What are some whole foods that have about 75% of fat calorie intake?
peanut butter and cheddar cheese
What are some whole foods that have about 60% of fat calorie intake?
marbled steak and hamburgers
What are some whole foods that have about 50% of fat calorie intake?
chocolate bars, ice cream, doughnuts, and whole milk
what are some whole foods that have about 35% of fat calorie intake?
eggs pumpkin pie, and cupcakes
Bread contains what percentage of fat
A compound that can suspend fat in water by isolating individual fat droplets, using a shell of water molecules or other substances to prevent the fat from coalescing is known as ____
____ is used as an emulsifier
when you buy a reduced-fat food product the ____ is probaby the same, though ____ has been added instead of fat
What is considered to be cholesterol free?
less then 2 milligrams of cholesterol and 2g or less of saturated fat per serving
What is considered low cholesterol?
20mg and 2g or less of saturated fat and if the serving is 30g or less or 2 tblsp. or less
What is considered less cholesterol?
25% less cholesterol and 2g or less of saturated fat per serving
What are some fat substitutes?
water, Z-trim (forms of carbohydrates, starches), Fiber cellulose, Dairy-Lo (protein),and Olestra or Olean (made with fat and sugar)
"low fat" means the product has no more than ___ grams of fat per serving
"reduced fa" means the product has at least ___ less fat per serving
protein and carbohydrates probably lead to the most ___
a food high in fat makes the dish taste ____
Fats that have gone bad are known as ___
The double bond in unsaturated fatty acids break down producing ___
An unpleasant odor or flavor is cause by
______ is more susceptible to rancidity
True or False: Rancidity reduces the shelf life of food products
How do manufacturers increase shelf life to products?
by adding partially-hydrogenated oil
What are some ways of preventing rancidity?
hydrogenation, addition of vitamin E, Addition of Butylated hydroxyanisol and Butylated hydroxytolune
___ solidifies the vegetable oils into shortenings and margarines
What is the process where hydrogen is added by bubbling hydrogen gas under pressure into liquid vegetable oils?
hydrogenation produces ______
trans fatty acids
a bend in the carbon chain of fatty acids forms __
a straighter carbon forms __
trans fatty acids
To help minimize trans fat intake the general public should
limit fried foods, any pastries or flacky bread and cookies
Excessive trans fatty acid intake _____ the LDL
The LDL is ____ cholesterol
Excessive trans fatty acid intake _____ the HDL
The HDL is ______ in cholesterol
What can excessive trans fatty acids do to a persons health?
give them an increased risk of cardiovascular disease
Tans fat intake in North America is currently at about____ of total kcal
True or False: Trans fat free means fat free
FAls, trans fat free does not mean fat free cause there can still be palm oil and coconut oil in it which is saturated fats
Fat-digesting enzyme produced by the salivary glands, stomach, and pancreas is ___
Lipase acts primarily on ____ that have fatty acids with short chain lengths like those found in butterfat.
Gastric lipase is activated by a ____ environment
The small intestines is the __ site of fat digestion
WHat hormone stimulated the release of pancreatic lipase?
In the small intestines fat is broken down to ______ and _____
monoglycerides and fatty acids
Enzymes released from the pancreas and small intestines digest _______
Phosopholipids can be broken down into ____,____, and_____
glycerol, fatty acids and remaining parts
Cholesterol is ____ during digestion
____ is the amount of dietary fat that is absorbed
If a fatty acid is less than 12 carbon atoms then it is _______ and will probably travel through the ______
water soluble, portal system
If the fatty acid has more than 12 carbon atoms then it is transformed into ____ is not ______ and enters circulation through the_______
triglycerides, is not water soluble and lymphatic system
______ serves as the vehicles for transport of lipids from the small intestines and liver to the body tissues
What are the four groups that lipoprotein is broken down into?
Chylomicrons, VDL, LDL, and HDL
Lipoproteins that are made of dietary fats surrounded by a shell of cholesterol, phospholipids, and proteins is known as ____
Chylomicron is delivered to the ____
The liver takes up various ___ from the blood
Lipoprotein composed of cholesterol and triglycerides surrounded by a water-soluble shell is known as what?
VDL's are_____in triglycerides and very___ in density
As triglycerides are released the VDL becomes proportionately denser making the remains _______
The remaining cholesterol of VDL's composes ______
high proportion of protein make _____ the densest lipoprotein
HDL picks up ____ from dying cells and other sources
____ transfer cholesterol to other lipoproteins
____ transfer cholesterol directly back to the liver
HDL's remove ____ from the bloodstream
HDL may block oxidation of _____
___ reduces teh risk of cardiovascular disease
pre-menopausal women have higher ______
____ in the arteries take up the lipoprotein, leading to a buildup of cholesterol in the blood vessels
Scavenger cells cause the build up of plaque in the blood vessels making a person develop ______
_______ increases the risk of cardiovascular disease
LDLs, and atherosclerosis which all in all comes from LDL's
Antioxidants reduce ____ and slow ___ intake by scavenger cells
oxidation, and LDL
Omega-3 and Omega-6 (can or can not ) be synthesized in the body
Omega-3 fatty acid can be primarily found in ____
Two servings of ___ per week is the recommendation to get in all the Omega-3 fatty acids
What are some sources that you can find Omega-3 in other than fish?
canola and soybean oil, walnuts, flax seeds, mussels, crab, and shrimp
True or False: omega-3 fatty acids ten to decrease blood clotting and inflammatory processes in the body
Omega-6 is found in ____
Only about _____ tblsps. per day is recommended for Omega-6 fatty acids
Archidnic acid comes from what?
Archidonic acid can cause an increarse in what?
blood clotting and inflammatory responses
What are some symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency?
flaky,itchy skin, diarrhea, infections, retarded growth and wound healing
What are some functions of fatty acids?
to provide energy, storage of energy, insulation, protection, and transfer fat soluble vitamins
what disease puts people at risk for deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins
What are the bodies main emulsifiers?
lecithins and bile acids
the recommended percentage of kcal from fat is?
What percentage of the total kcal from fat can come from saturated/trans fat?
What percentage can come from PUFAS
what percentage of fat can come from MUFAS
About ____of the cholesterol comes from body and about____ is consumed in our diet
2/3's and 1/3
REcommended cholesterol per day is?
AI for Omega-3 is
1.6 g/d for men and 1.1 g/d for women
AI for Omega-6 is
17 g/d for men and 12 g/d for women
What is the healthy blood pressure?
In diabetes insulin increases ____ synthesis
Diabetes guarantees the development of
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