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The diffusion of substance X across a membrane into the cell will increase if the membrane’s permeability is __________, the amount of X is decreased inside of the cell, and/or the membrane’s thickness is __________.
peripheral, efferent, and sympathetic
Since both parts of the autonomic nervous system use _______ at the preganglionic synapse, the ganglia must be
at different locations so that the messages remain_____.
that this system is more than just the classic sense of touch,
the stimulus is not received by a specialized cell before the afferent neuron,
some of the main types of receptors involved include nociceptors and mechanoreceptors,
the signals are received in the cerebrum in a spatially-related pattern called a homunculus.
Correct statements about the somatosensory system are that this system is
that it is not a part of the afferent nervous system,
it has two axons in the PNS,
delivers endocrines directly to the plasma,
its ganglion is close to the spinal cord.
not involved in determining the intensity
is inversely related to sensitivity.
that it uses stereocilia to register movement,
semicircular canals do
not use otoliths to determine rotation of the head,
the parts of the system are located near but not within the cochlea.
Activation of the ganglion _____ will _____ the bronchioles.
that the neuron with the largest stimulus causes the greatest
hyperpolarization of its neighboring neurons
not only the neurons without the largest stimulus are inhibited.
would be that it triggers the endocytosing of the voltage-gated channels in the stereo cilia,
it does not introduce antagonists for the stereocilia in the cochlea,
it does not cause hyperpolarization to impact the potassium channels in the stereocilia.
Carmen is accosted on the Oval by a new, master villain who waves her freshly created “deafening” weapon in Carmen’s face. She insists that Carmen helps her steal the Thompson statue or she will destroy Carmen’s hearing. Correct statements about how the “deafening” weapon works
to increased respiration and bronchiole relaxation,
release of acetylcholine by his preganglionic neurons,
reduced digestion of the honey he ate for breakfast so he could power his little, running legs.
brain becoming overloaded with too many incoming signals
not be able to as easily focus on the important stimuli.
the receptors at the base of her cochlea were damaged,
the excess water pressure damaged the cells that release variable levels of neurotransmitters,
the otoliths in her utricle and saccule were dislodged so as to be unable to do their normal function.
had the density of afferent neuron receptive fields that is very high
the receptive fields of the neurons are very small.
his action potentials in the afferent neurons will have a greater frequency
his neurons will release a large number of neurotransmitters.
The cell membrane separates the _______ and _________ compartments and the capillary walls
separate the _______ and ______ ______ compartments.
The polarity of the plasma is
After contracting the influenza virus, a patient’s white blood cell count will ______. The part of the reflex arc that the white blood cells represent would be the ________
Maintenance of biorhythms is typically associated with _____, ______ and ________
The skin is not a type of ______ tissue because it is an ____.
Correct statements about free radicals are that they..?
Of our three critical equations for physiology this term, the ones that directly involve carbon dioxide are..?
Because Brutus usually eats at the same time every day, he begins salivating just before his meal times. This situation is an example of what?
Functions of the proteins in the extracellular matrix are...
In central Ohioans, a new messenger (Buckeye Pride Factor; BPF) is discovered. BPF does not leave the plasma membrane of the signaling cell, but causes the effector to create a dioxygenated compound (O-H- I-O). BPF is best categorized as a...?
On your way to campus today, you began to shiver as your core body temperature dropped below set point. This process is an example of _________ feedback in response to your body no longer being at ______ ________.
Correct statement about how the three main categories of extracellular messengers could be regrouped are that...
Shelby, the silly old dog, went outside during the recent extremely cold weather only to quickly realize that her paws were very cold. She likely came to this realization because she sent a signal through her ___________ and to her ____________
Fascia is the term for a layer of connective cells that is fibrous and commonly found around _____, ________, and _________. Fascia would be best described as a ______.
An ill friend had her doctor do a blood test to “make sure all her levels were normal.” Because she was unclear about what her doctor was doing, you correctly tell her that he is
A cell receives a message to replicate. Correct statements about how the message could have arrived are that
The correct order from least to most amount of energy that would be required to return to the set point after a change is
Correct statements about the movement through a protein channel are that
A function of endocytosis the
Correct statements about molecular bonds are that
ADP has a direct relationship with _______ output
If oxygen is returned to a cell, the first process to change its products/outputs would be ________
The osmolarity of 2 L containing 3 mol NaCl, 2 mol KCl, and 4 mol glucose is?
Gap junctions link the _______ of cells and tight junctions link the ________ _________ of the cells.
An alien creature from the second moon of Endor has a highly toxic liquid venom that it uses to kill prey. The venom contains extracellular matrix dissolving enzymes and is held within a special pouch in its mouth. Assuming the creature has the same junctions as humans, the junctions that should be present in the pouch are?
Attempting to get warm this last week, the normally couch nut (i.e., inactive) Brutus ran around the oval one thousand times. At the end of this activity, he is most likely generating energy in his achy legs via?
Correct statements about grouping of the three metabolic pathways are that
A small, nonpolar compound move through the phospholipid head regions of the plasma membrane to enter the cytosol because the compound’s concentration in the tail region has become?
Correct statements about the glycocalyx are that
Shelby, the silly old dog, gets along with all other dogs, even Vincent and Otago who always avoid each other. If Shelby was a component of the plasma membrane, she could be a __________ or an __________, but not _________, __________.
A question in lecture drew out the fact that, unlike human cells, plant cells always have fixed wall positions. Therefore, to increase water uptake, the cells in the roots of a dehydrated plant must?
Correct statements about the sodium-potassium-ATPase pump are that?
Carmen took a long swim in the McCorkle Aquatic Pavilion. Afterwards, she noticed that her finger tips were shriveled. Correct statements about this situation are that
Correct statements about the involvement of a G protein in a signaling pathway are that
Electrical synapses have messages that travel ________ through gap junctions and move __________.
To increase the response of an agonistic drug in a patient, you could ________ the saturation of the drug’s receptor and/or _________ the receptor’s affinity for the drug.
At a chemical synapse where neuron A is communicating with neuron B, neuron A must be the ___________ neuron and ________ releasor, and neuron B must be the _______ neuron and contain _______.
After an elbow injury, you have difficulty moving your fingers. Your doctor tells you that he believes you injured the?
Afferent neurons receive stimuli with their ______ and are the ______ _________ of all the neurons.
An ion has a higher concentration outside of a typical cell. When its ion-channel is opened in the plasma membrane, the ion will have its
Correct statements about the anatomy of typical neuron are that
The statement that correctly describes the structure that propagates electrical signals toward the spinal cord is that
An intracellular receptor will alter ___ _________ and could be found in more than one location associated with a _________ cell.
Carmen likes all dogs, but likes Otago, the food-loving dog, much more than Shelby, the silly-old dog. We can correctly say that Carmen has a _________ for Shelby, and a higher ______ for Otago.
Correct statements about a plasma membrane effector protein are that
In contrast to ligands that bind to membrane-bound receptors, ligands that bind to intracellular receptors must be ________
Correct statements about astrocytes are that
Correct statements about the myelin in the left lobe of the brain are that
Brutus became ill after a long football weekend. His cells activated receptors that helped him produce the proteins needed to mount an immune response. Once he started to feel better, to slow the production of those immune-boosting proteins, his body could have caused
Having paid close attention to her physiology over the years, Julie develops an airborne chemical that will disrupt the visual reflex arc and cause temporary blindness in the people who inhale it. Correct statements about the compound Julie created are that
The scenarios might cause a very large impact on
brain function would be eliminating a _______ neuron participating in _______ and removing all of the ____________.
Correct statements about the events of an action potential are that
An electrical signal is conducted via ______ potentials between the nodes of Ranvier. The amplitude of the potentials in neighboring nodes of Ranvier are the ______.
In order to ensure a message is passed at a typical synapse, the presynaptic neuron should have
The process of __________ could lead to ___________ summation in the fewer postsynaptic neurons.
Carmen was walking across campus on a very icy day. Unfortunately, a car slid on the ice and up onto the sidewalk to hit her. Only the dorsal portion of her spinal cord was injured so she was
The corpus callosum is responsible for connection in the ________ and is made up of __________
Unfortunately, Shelby, the silly old dog, is truly getting old and her balance is deteriorating. You correctly determine that this situation is primarily due to her
A relatively high intensity stimulus produces a ______-sized graded potential in the _________ portion of an axon.
Identify the correct relationship:
Correct statements about dopamine are that
A patient with a traumatic brain injury due to a sharp blow to the head would likely have damaged _______. But, a patient with a crushed vertebral main body in the spine would likely still have ________ below the injury.
A whole term of overly sugared coffee resulted in a tooth ache in an unfortunate student. At the dentist, a local anesthetic was given before the drilling started. The mechanism that made that anesthetic effective is that the
Positive feedback is not always occurring in neurons when
Correct statements about Vm?
Scenarios will cause an action potential to be less likely to occur are
Using her physiology knowledge, Julie develops a new chemotherapy drug for cancer. Unfortunately, a side effect is the loss of 10% of the patient’s Schwann cells. Correct consequences of taking Julie’s drug would be that
After a touchdown, Brutus does pushups in the end zone. The parts of the brain are being used to complete this activity would be both the _________ and the ________.
Correct statements about action potentials are that
After a knock on the door, Shelby, the silly old dog, released acetylcholine in the ganglia nearest her spine. The parts of her nervous system were involved in this process are the
If damaged, the _______ would have the smallest impact on the processing of signals compared
Since both parts of the autonomic nervous system use _________ at the preganglionic synapse, the ganglia must be
at different locations so that the messages ____.
To improve the localization of a signal, the signal should impact an area with _____ and _______.
Winnie the Pooh was on an ordinary honey run when suddenly a Heffalump and Woozle jumped out from a tree and scared the bear. The physiological responses that Pooh likely experienced were to
increased respiration and bronchiole relaxation, release of acetylcholine by his preganglionic neurons, and reduced digestion of the honey he ate for breakfast so he could power his little, running legs.
The human face is very sensitive. A typical person can often determine exactly where a hair is tickling them or an insect has landed. Based on this knowledge, it can correctly be determined that
Correctly ordered listing from largest to smallest would be
correct unique feature of cardiac muscle versus other muscle types.
In the neuromuscular junction, ___________ will cross the synapse to bind to ________ that are channels that will allow _______ to cross the plasma membrane.
As the [Ca+2] in the sarcoplasmic reticulum _______, the width of the H zone and __________ increases.
Carmen’s boyfriend has been working all term in the RPAC to increase his upper body strength. Yesterday, he proudly flexed his newly enlarged biceps for her. Having a captive student, Carmen correctly told him that,
According to old beliefs about dog vision, Shelby, the silly old dog, is colorblind. Correct statements about the potential causes of this colorblindness would be that
In August, Brutus started using a new and very strong cologne. Because the football team won that week, he continued to wear it. At a celebration party for the Michigan win, you tell him that he is wearing too much of the cologne but he says he can barely smell it and the football players he is around every day do not complain. He decides to immediately stop using it after you correctly tell him that
In the neuromuscular junction, ______ will cross the synapse to bind to ______ that are channels that will allow ______to cross the plasma membrane.
While at the gym performing deadlifts, you bend over to lift a heavy barbell that is resting on the ground. As you decrease the weight of that barbell, it will take ___ time to initially move the barbell and ___ time to move it all the way up.
As you decrease the weight of that barbell, it will take less time to initially move the barbell and less time to move it all the way up.
Endocrines from the hypothalamus pass through the ___ to cause their own release from the ___ pituitary gland.
Endocrines from the hypothalamus pass through the nerve axons to cause their own release from the posterior pituitary gland.
The hypothalamus sends ___, a(n) ___ endocrine, to the pituitary gland via the ___.
The hypothalamus sends Somatostatin (SS), an inhibitory endocrine, to the pituitary gland via the infundibulum.
has a lower than normal level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),
has thyroid endocrines doing negative feedback on the anterior pituitary gland,
has sufficient iodine present, and has an autoimmune disease called Grave’s disease.
contraction occurs due to the spread of APs through gap junctions.
Cortisol – parathyroid hormone (PTH)
At a recent family dinner, your grandmother complained that she barely bumped her arm in a fall, yet broke it anyway. Knowing that you are studying physiology, she asks for your advice. You correctly tell her that she
may not have sufficient receptors on her parathyroid gland
she may need to begin a regular weight- lifting schedule.
Carmen did last November’s Mirror Lake jump. Due to a resulting illness, she has consistently low plasma calcium levels. To impact this level issue, her body could
secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) to increase bone reabsorption
increase the impacts of the kidney and liver on vitamin D.
An alien from the planet Elapidae kills its prey by injecting venom that shuts down the heart. Correct potential mechanism for how the venom works would be
causes tight junctions to form in the myocardium.
Using her physiology knowledge, Julie determined possible reasons for her short stature (she needs a step stool to accomplish many tasks).
her sex endocrines were released too early in her life
she had high somatostatin levels during her early development,
she lived in a very stressful environment as a child.
The positive feedback mechanism that allows your heart to contract requires
While at home over Spring Break, your mother complained about being cold (shh, even though she had obviously added a few pounds recently) and tired very easily. You now call her and correctly tell her to have her doctor run tests to check for
iodine levels being too low and her having an autoimmune disease.
One of your GTAs had her thyroid and all the glandular material near her voice box removed. When warned of possible side effects of the surgery,
not want to be taking vitamin K supplements,
be more susceptible to internal bleeding,
not have decreased platelet aggregation,
be less likely to have a stroke.
To make Teflon-covered o-rings for her experiments, one of your TAs covers a rubber o-ring with a white stretchy tape-like material (Teflon). She pinches the center of the o-ring to ensure the Teflon sticks to itself and stays in place. This experimental device is most similar to a
Carmen is saddened to learn that a friend has hypertension and further saddened to learn that she does not understand the diagnosis. Therefore, Carmen correctly tells her
is often due to a problem with the kidneys,
it leads to a lowering of the expiratory reserve volume,
the cause is often not what is treated for most patients.
Hemophilia is a condition in which at least one protein necessary for clot formation is either not produced or does not function properly. If the protein is thrombin, aside from clotting issues, the additional symptoms we would expect to observe
A friend has been very tired lately and quite often dizzy. You correctly conclude that he is anemic. A report from his doctor’s office show normal levels of iron, vitamin B12, and erythropoietin. The type of anemia your friend might have is
Red blood cells are made in the _______ due to erythropoietin made in the _______.
increasing iron levels,
difficulty adapting to altitude, chronic high blood
altered viscosity of the blood.
A sanguivorous alien from the planet Desmodontidae feeds on the blood of its prey. Its saliva has components that limit clotting thereby maximizing the bleeding of its victim, including humans. A correct method by which the saliva could work would be that ??
Your friend’s baby was born well ahead of her due date (i.e., arrived early). Unfortunately, the premature bundle of joy is having respiratory complications because??
Brutus’ endurance was not lasting sufficiently to the end of games. Being the good Buckeye, Julie used her physiology knowledge to develop a drug to help him. Correct statements about her drug are
platelets participate in a positive feedback process
prostacyclin is released to limit the process.
As you near the end of this exam and the perceived pressure mounts, you take a very deep breath to calm yourself. While taking this breath, your diaphragm is becoming
it will not cause a large change in clotting ability,
climbing to the top of the stadium will not cause it,
it will be alleviated by donating blood.
Muscle spindle is to Golgi tendon organ as belly is to head/feet.
At Mother’s day dinner, you gave your mother a lovely hunk of the breast meat from a turkey. You tell her that the majority of these muscle cells generated energy ___ and there is ___ myoglobin present.
You tell her that the majority of these muscle cells generated energy anaerobically
and there is little myoglobin present.
If someone wanted to reduce the effects of testosterone, he could trigger the ___.
If someone wanted to reduce the effects of testosterone, he could trigger the increase of its catabolism in the plasma.
From a classic sitting position (i.e., what you should be doing right now), you decide to raise just your right hand to touch your nose. Since your shoulder hurts, you touch your nose without moving it. Therefore, you will ___ your flexor muscle.
Therefore, you will stimulate your flexor muscle.
The ducks at Mirror Lake can regularly fly over to the river and slightly north to the wetlands. These activities indicate that their flight muscles...
These activities indicate that their flight muscles
regularly use oxidative fibers
have lots of myoglobin
and have very different type proportion to their legs.
In smooth muscle, calcium binds to ___ which activated myosin light chain ___.
In smooth muscle, calcium binds to calmodulin which activated myosin light chain kinase.
The initial source of ATP for skeletal muscle is ___ then from ___, if prolonged activity continues.
The initial source of ATP for skeletal muscle is creatine phosphate then from glycolysis, if prolonged activity continues.
Prior to the start of a contraction in a myofiber, the ___ is when the calcium concentration is only ___ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Prior to the start of a contraction in a myofiber, the latent period is when the calcium concentration is only decreasing in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
A decrease in the frequency and intensity of the stimuli will increase the ___ and lead to ___ tetanus.
A decrease in the frequency and intensity of the stimuli will increase the return of calcium and lead to unfused tetanus.
A contraction with no change in tension is called ___, but, if the load is then suddenly doubled, the contraction will be called ___.
A contraction with no change in tension is called isotonic, but, if the load is then suddenly doubled, the contraction will be called eccentric.
Insulin is a ___ endocrine and is ___.
Insulin is a peptide endocrine and is polar.
While cruising across campus without shoes, Brutus stepped on a very sharp rock. What are the correct consequences?
the flexor in his pained leg and extensor in his other leg were both stimulated
he completed an involuntary contraction of his somatic muscles
and his legs would be moving before he realized he had stepped on the rock.
fast-glycolytic fibers allow you to generate more tension than slow-oxidative fibers
fast-glycolytic fibers fatigue faster than fast- oxidative-glycolytic fibers
slow-oxidative fibers require less ATP than fast-oxidative-glycolytic fibers.
At the RPAC, you watch Carmen attempt to lift a 200-lb weight. You correctly tell her...
She will experience a smaller response than when lifting the 100-kb weight
to generate maximum force, she should utilize her fast-glycolytic muscle fibers
she will more likely be utilizing fused than unfused tetanus.
unlike skeletal, smooth can be inhibited
like skeletal, smooth requires cytosolic calcium
While frolicking through campus, Ally and Tony got excited about creating a physiological analogy based on their vehicles. Tony has a Prius hybrid that gets significantly better gas mileage than Ally’s Escalade. But Ally will be able to pull the boat to the lake. If we classify these vehicles as types of myofibers....
Tony’s Prius would have more myoglobin and Ally’s Escalade would be less vascularized.
The long-time Phys Phab Julie began writing an article about the endocrine she has been rubbing on the skin of her mice and causing an increase in tumor growth due to changes in the expression of certain DNA sequences. What is correct about the endocrine?
Correct statements from her paper about the endocrine would be that
it is most likely a steroid
and it must bind to intracellular receptors.
A classmate awoke at 8:25 today. As a result, he sprinted to Sullivant. What is correct about his actions?
he experienced an isometric contraction when he first started running
he primarily used his fast-glycolytic fibers to reach the exam on time
and he has actually done this process for each exam and is experiencing hypertrophy in those muscles.
As an obvious consequence of her nickname, Otago, the food-loving dog, has become overweight. Which would be correct statements about the impact of her new, increased size on her standing up?
she will experience longer latent periods
she will require longer periods of isometric contraction
and she will take longer to stand up.
After ingesting the Mother’s Day dinner, which is the correct statements about your relative from Ester’s stomach?
his parasympathetic is activated
and his dense bodies are getting closer.
Usain Bolt of Jamaica is currently the two-time Olympic champion in the 100 m sprint. Which would be correct statements about his leg muscles?
he inherited a high proportion of fast-glycolytic fibers
they would be lighter in coloration than the winner of the Olympic marathon
and they would have a greater diameter than the winner of the Olympic marathon.
Which is a correct difference between the withdrawal and knee-jerk response?
withdrawal response involves nociceptors while the knee-jerk response involves mechanoreceptors
the flexor is not stimulated in the knee-jerk but is stimulated in the withdrawal response.
Which is a correct statement about the different types of endocrines?
When insulin is made, it cannot be used immediately
steroid endocrines do not initiate a second messenger system
and the thyroid endocrines do not require assistance to cross the plasma membrane.
Which is a correct pairing of an ATP source in muscles and a trait of that source?
Krebs cycle – allows for conversion of proteins
glycolysis – possible when anaerobic
and creatine phosphate – creates 1 ATP per creatine
Which is a correct statement about how muscles make ATP with creatine phosphate?
It does not require a special organelle to occur
and highly increased levels will create a greater diameter without increasing the maximum tension.
When freed from the confines of his house, Vincent, the fun-loving dog, enjoys taking a long, leisurely run. Which is a correct statement about his leg muscles?
he mainly utilizes his fibers with low ATPase activity
and he is not generating a lot of tension.
Proprioception provides a sense of body position
has two distinct locations of its mechanoreceptors
and sends afferent signals to the brain and spinal cord.
No endocrines produced by the posterior pituitary gland.
You visit a friend in the hospital who has had a heart attack (i.e., damaged cardiac muscle). You observe his EKG and see that the P wave is the only normal appearing component. Your friend most likely damaged his ___.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) binds to ___ receptors. Thyroxine binds to ___.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) binds to membrane-bound receptors. Thyroxine binds to intracellular receptors.
Hyperpolarization of components in the ___ would limit the release of ___.
Hyperpolarization of components in the posterior pituitary gland would limit the release of oxytocin.
Which endocrines will positively impact human growth when released?
Endocrines that will positively impact human growth when released are the thyroid hormones, testosterone, and insulin.
If you do not have sufficient cortisol in your system, which symptom set are you likely to experience?
If you do not have sufficient cortisol in your system, the symptom set are you likely to experience would be easily fatigued, low plasma glucose, and low blood pressure.
Which are correct pairings of pituitary endocrine and effector?
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) – gonads
growth hormone (GH) – bones
and luteinizing hormone (LH) – ovary
Bone growth occurs at epiphyseal plates located ___ of bones and can be closed by ___.
Bone growth occurs at epiphyseal plates located at the end of bones and can be closed by estrogen.
In cardiac muscle, calcium enters the cell via ___ and exits the cell via ___.
In cardiac muscle, calcium enters the cell via channels and exits the cell via pumps
The systolic phase occurs when the heart is ___ and, therefore, will have a(n) ___ pressure generated.
The systolic phase occurs when the heart is contracting and, therefore, will have an increasing pressure generated.
Follicle is to thyroid gland as ___ is to ___.
Follicle is to thyroid gland as nephron is to kidney.
The long-time Phys Phab Julie began writing an article about the abnormal thyroid activity of her mice. The mice have developed goiters and need to be kept at a lower than typical temperature. Which would be a correct statement from her paper about mice?
their T3 and T4 are doing negative feedback
and an agonist is likely creating the problem.
During cardiac contraction, the lub sound occurs during contraction of the ___ while the dub sound occurs during ___.
During cardiac contraction, the lub sound occurs during contraction of the ventricles while the dub sound occurs during relaxation of the ventricles.
Correct statements about the actions in a normal heart?
a murmur would not coincide with atrial depolarization
when the semilunar valves close, blood is prevented from moving back into the ventricles
and more energy is required to complete ventricular than atrial contraction.
Your relative from Ester is concerned about his upcoming return trip home. To reduce his stress level, he has decided take a pill that says it will greatly reduce the cortisol in his system. You decide to add details with your physiology knowledge. The pill will...
pill will alter his current metabolism status
will decrease his likelihood of becoming ill
and will not alleviate his stress.
The hypothalamus produces which pair of endocrines?
vasopressin and oxytocin
Otago, the food-loving dog, is looking for a “quick fix” of her weight problem. She has been reading her mom’s physiology text while waiting for her to return from OSU. The endocrines she could correctly decide to take would be...
Brutus has been feeling sluggish lately (i.e., fatigues easily). After a blood test, the doctor informs him that his pituitary is not producing a sufficient amount of one endocrine. He warns that if they do not remedy this situation, Brutus will experience fainting issues due to a lowered blood pressure. Which endocrine is not being sufficiently produced by Brutus’ pituitary gland?
adrenocortictropic hormone (ACTH)
NOT cortisol, NOT T4
The treatment for hyperthyroidism used to be the surgical removal of all the glandular tissue straddling the individual’s larynx. Which are correct statements about the consequences of this surgery?
growth hormone (GH) would be less successful in creating proteins
and the functioning of the heart could be negatively impacted
A PICC line (peripherally inserted central catheter) is a small tube inserted into the superior vena cava. Medication inserted into a PICC line would immediately follow which path through a patient’s heart?
right atrium to right ventricle to pulmonary artery
Carmen decides to be proactive about her heart health and schedules a full heart work up. As she looks over the results, she is shocked and terrified to learn that the four chambers of her heart do not all have the same size. Since a relative died from complication of an enlarged heart, she is especially concerned about her over-sized left ventricle. Learning about her situation, you correctly try to soothe her by telling her that....