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Made up of: carbon and hydrogen w/ backbone of glycerol and 1-3 fatty acids.
Nonpolar= not soluble in water
Fats: solid at room temp
Oils: liquids at room temp
-fats and encompass a large group of molecules
- oils, fats and fatty acids
-stored for a source of fuel after carbohydrate depletion
no dbl bonds between carbons of chain= more likely to be SOLID at room temperature
more "saturated" with the hydrogen
made of: 1 carbon, 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen
**MOST ABUNDANT IN BODY**
Divided in 3 categories: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
-sugars and starches that provide energy for the body
Most common monosaccharaides are the building blocks: 5 carbons (like ribose)or 6 carbons (like glucose)
Consist of glucose plus another monosaccharide
ex. glucose + frutose
-made up of amino acids
-30+ amino acids
play an important role in energy and information transfer
ie. energy: ATP & ADP
information transfer: DNA & RNA
-1 or more phosphate group
- 5 carbon sugar
-Nitrogen base ( carbon/nitrogen ring structure)
-sharing of electrons
-Single: sharing of one pair
-Double: sharing of two pairs
-Triple: sharing of three pairs
These bonds have evenly distributed electrons among atoms.
i.e. molecules that are mainly made up of hydrogen and carbon
-have regions of partial charge
i.e. most common example of this is water
Form between hydrogen and a nearby oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom.
Bonds are weak and partial.
Responsible for water surface tension ie. why are water droplet stays together.
These proteins turn cell processes on and off or up or down.
ie. Transcription factors that bind to DNA and alter gene expression and protein synthesis.
This is a phospholipid bilayer that contains proteins that act as anchors, transporters enzymes or signal receptors.
-Gateway between cytoplasm and extracellular fluid
Converts inactive form by removing part of the molecule
Ex. digestive enzymes and protein hormones
Binds covalently to protein and changes its activity.
Ex. Phosphate groups
Alter three-deminsional shape of protein by disrupting hydrogen or S-S bonds.
This may be irreversible if protein denatures.
Made up of two membranes forming the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space.
Contains own DNA.
Responsible for the production of ATP
Mitochondria are the energy producers of the cell. The double membrane is critical for function.
form cytoplasmic bridges between cells that are interconnected by CONNEXON which are composed of proteins called CONNEXINS.
-Rapid/direct cell communication
occluding junctions, where two cell membranes form together forming a barrier to substances that try and pass through
ie. the blood-brain barrier: very tight and does not allow substances into the spinal cavity
these contribute to the mechanical strength of tissues in the body and allow them to twist/stretch without breaking
ie. A picket fence is very sturdy but unlike a tight junction it allows smaller safe substances to pass through rather easily.
Epithelial cells attached to the basement membrane.
Any substance that enters body must cross epithelial tissue.
Types: Exchange, Transporting, Protective, Ciliated, Secretory
**MOST ABUNDANT TISSUE TYPE**
very thin and flattened ( allows for that exchange)
-found in the blood vessels and lungs
ONE layer of cuboidal or columnar cells.
-Contain tight junctions that limit paracellular movement.
- prevent exchange between internal and external
-thick stratified keratin cells
-being ciliated helps them clean the air that sweeps across
-also found in lungs (cleanses the air we breathe)
Produces and secretes substances.
-grouped into glands
ie. serous secretions, mucous secretions etc.
Provides structural support and sometimes as a barrier to bacteria.
Types: loose, dense, cartilage, bone, adipose, blood
Very flexible with multiple cell types and fibers.
Ex. Skin and small glands
Provide strength and flexibility.
Ex. Tendons and Ligaments
Contain dense ground substances that contain closely packed fibers.
Ex. Cartilage and Bone
Made up of adipocytes or "fat" cells... typically white.
Characterized by watery extracellular matrix= plasma.
-Plasma contains ions and dissolved organic molecules and a very large variety of soluble proteins. These proteins are usually absent in other connective tissues.
Excitable tissue= ability to generate and take electric signals.
-Have the ability to contract and produce force and movement
Ex. Cardiac, Smooth and Skeletal
-ability to contract and shorten
-voluntary and involuntary muscle
Contains two types of cells:
Neurons-nerve cells, carry info from one part of body to another
Glia-support cells of the neurons.
The energy of motion.
ie. ball rolling down hill, heat warming a frying pan etc.
ie. A ball sitting at the top of the hill has "potential energy" or stored energy to start rolling down the hill.
the potential energy stored in chemical bonds of a molecule
-The more chemical bonds= the more free energy
1/3 of total body volume
-Contains 75% interstitial fluid and 25% plasma
A- T (U)
-composed of carbon, amine group (NH2), carboxyl group (COOH), a hydrogen and an R group
-R GROUP: different in each amino acid and give it its own identity
- only 20 amino acids to make all proteins necessary in life
take blood away from heart
take blood towards the heart
-fluid flow through a tube depends on it (directly proportional)
-the higher the PG the greater the fluid flow
Resistance opposes flow (indirectly proportional)
-ex. resistance increases = flow decreases (vice versa)
- resistance increases as length of tube increases
-resistance increases as viscosity (thickness of blood) increases
-resistance decreases as radius increases
-decrease in blood vessel diameter/radius
-decreases blood flow
-increase in blood vessel diameter/radius
-increase in blood flow
- signal for contraction (not nervous system)
-heart can beat outside of body
NO organized sarcomeres
- fewer contractile fibers compared to contractile cells
-by the number of active crossbridges (how much Ca2+ is bound to troponin)
- Sarcomeres length affects force of contraction
-tetanus from occurring
-because by the end of the refactory period the contraction has almost completed as well therefore the cardiac muscle is almost completely relaxed before another action potential can fire
-unstable membrane potential of a autorhymic cell
-opposite of a "resting potential" cause it never stays at a constant value
-reason why autorhymic cells can generate an action potential spontaneously
-1st the autorhymic cells spontaneously fire action potentials --> depolarize
-Then spread rapidly to adjacent contractile cells through gap junctions
- routes the direction of electrical signals so the heart contracts from apex to base
-located at bottom of right atrium
-records the electrical activity of all cells recorded from the surface of the body
-aka. the electrical activity of the heart
-closure of the AV valves
-closing of semilunar valve
-amount of blood pumped by one ventricle during a contraction
- average = 70 mL
- volume of blood pumped by one ventricle in a given period of time
- average= 5 L/min
- length of muscle fiber (longer the better)- frank-starling mechanism
- as stretch of ventricular wall increases, so does stroke volume
- preload is the degree of myocardial stretch before contraction
-contractility of heart
-the amount of blood that enters he heart from venous circulation
- determines the end-diastolic volume (EDV)
-skeletal muscle pump
-sympathetic innervation of veins
- skeletal muscle pump
- respiratory pump
- sympathetic innervation
- any chemical that affects contractility
-positive effects: epinephrine, norepinephrine and digitalis
-are the thinnest
-consist of only a thin layer cells, supported by the basal lamina (basement membrane)
-bone marrow, liver and spleen
-the contain sinosoids instead
-the higher the metabolic activity the more capillary the tissue needs (requires more oxygen and nutrients)
-found in heart, brain, skeletal muscle and skin
-made up of endothelial cells and have leaky junctions
-contain large pores that allow high volume of fluids to pass through
- most commonly found in intestine and epithelial tissue 9 (absorptive transporting epithelia)
-mass movements of fluid as a result of hydrostatic or osmotic pressure gradients
-absorption= fluid movement INTO capillary (towards vein)
-Filtration= fluid movement OUT of capillary (towards artery)
-excess water and solutes is picked up by lymph system and returned to circulation
-forces fluid out of the capillary (filtration)
-atrial end hydrostatic pressure is greater
-proteins within capillary pull fluids into capillary
-osmotic pressure is greater at venous end
- decrease cardiac output
- excretion of fluid via urine
-increase norepinephrine= blood vessels constrict
-decrease norepinephrine= blood vessel dialates
-primary reflex pathway for homeostatic control of mean arterial blood pressure
-baroreceptors are in walls of carotid arteries (blood to brain) and aorta (blood to body)
-returns fluid ad proteins to circulatory system
- picks up fat absorbed and transfers it to circulatory system
-inadequate drainage of the lymph
-filtration far greater than absorption in the capillaries
not controllable: sex, age, family history
controllable: smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia
-contributes to osmotic pressure
-carriers for various substances
-cytokine that influences production of RED BLOOD CELLS
-location: kidney cells
-cytokine that influences growth and development of MEGAKARYOCYTES (platelets)
-do not stick to INTACT endothelium
-damage to endothelium where collagen is exposed triggers platelet plug formation
Major contributor to colloid osmotic pressure of plasma; carrier for various substances
Liver and lymphoid tissue
Clotting factors, enzymes, antibodies, carriers for various substances
Forms fibrin threads essential to blood clotting
1. exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs (ventilation/breathing)
2. LUNGS:The exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the blood.
3.Transport of gases (O2 and CO2) by the blood
4. The exchange of gases between blood and cells
-Conducting system (airways)
-Alveoli: interconnected sacs with pulmonary capillaries (where exchange happens with blood)
-Bones and muscle of thorax and abdomen
-not only connect lungs to external environment
-also condition air before it reaches alveoli:
-warming: to body temp
-Add water vapor: 100% so exchange epithelium doesn't dry out
-filter out foreign material: ex. viruses, bacteria and inorganic products do not reach alveoli.
-secrete saline and mucus
-ciliated epithelial cells
- cell for gas exchange in alveoli
-very thin cells
- occupy 95% of alveoli's surface
- a state of too little oxygen
-results from impaired diffusion in lungs or inadequate oxygen transport in blood
-sometimes but not always accompanied by hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels)
-reduces the work of breathing
-smaller alveoli have greater surfactant therefore equalizing the pressure between large and small alveoli (therefore the smaller alveoli wont empty into the larger alveoli)
-length of system (constant)
-viscosity of air (usually constant)
-Diameter of airway
- upper: mucus and other
- bronchioles: bronchoconstriction (parasympathetic), bronchodilation(sympathetic epinephrine)
-inspired air has abnormally low oxygen content
-alveolar ventilation is inadequate
-ventilation increases: PO2 increase and PCO2decreases
-ventilation decreases: PO2 decreases and PCO2 increases
-Converted to bicarbonate ion: 70%
-Bound to Hemoglobin: 23%
-Functional unit of the kidneys
-filter waste material out of blood brought to the kidney by the renal artery
-respond to physical injury or irritation
-Hering-Breuer inflation reflex
-amount of hemoglobin--> determines the number of Hb binding sites
-oxygen dissolved in plasma
-oxygen bound to Hb
-FIRST ask "what is it about?"
-THEN ask "what point is the author trying to make about this topic"
**look at beginning and conclusion**
-look at antonyms and synonyms
**antonyms are sometime signaled by clue words such as although, but, and instead**
-once you identify meaning, put in place of the word and see if it still makes sense
-look closely at the authors choice of words, those are key clues
ex. positive or visionary= positive feeling
-Number of Protons in the nucleus
-Located at the top of each square in the periodic table
-average mass of a particular elements isotope (different kinds of the same atom)
- # at the bottom of the square on the periodic table
· atom that exhibits variation in its mass number
- protons stay the same--> neutrons are the only thing that changes
Matter is not created or destroyed just changed
- In a chemical reaction
state in which reactants are forming products at the same rate that products are forming reactants
- increase temperature
-increase surface area of reactants
- add catalyst
- increase concentrations of reactants
-causes particles to have a greater kenetic energy
-particles then move faster and which increases chance of contact and energy when they collide
-reduces the activation energy necessary for reaction to occur (finds an alternate pathway)
ex. Proteins or enzymes
-when two elements combine to form a product
-ex. 2K + 2Cl --> 2KCL
-(opposite of synthesis) breaking down of a compound into its component parts
-ex. NaCl --> Na + Cl
- self-sustaining exothermic chemical reaction initiated by heat acting on oxygen and a fuel compound
ex. ethane+ oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water
When one element replaces another in a compound.
- copper + silver nitrate --> copper nitrate + silver
- 2 compounds replacing each other
- Ex. silver nitrate + potassium chloride --> silver chloride + potassium nitrate
-not bonding interactions between atoms within a molecule but instead are weaker forces of attracti