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1. right atrium
The heart has 4 chambers to support metabolic rate
1. Explain what the systemic circuit is, and its function
The systemic circuit is the left side of the heart along with bicuspid valeves, and sends o2/blood to all body tissues except lungs
1. Explain what the pulmonary circuit is, and its function
The pulmonary circuit is the right side of the hear and purpose is to bring blood to lungs to get oxygenated
1. Describe the anatomy of heart valves, and explain their function
The heart valves are there to prevent backflow of blood and are anchored by chordae tendanie which close when the muscle contracts
outside of the heart, mainly for protection
middle layer of heart that creats the pumping action
inner most layer provides protection for walls and valves
Mechanical anchorages to keep cell together and keep electrically connections. Desmosomes- are the anchorage,Gap junctions are hollow proteins that are always open so ions can flow from one to the next.
throttle down the efflux of K so less positive charges are leaving, which causes depolarization.
increase influx along with CA to reach threshold, once hit jumps to action potential, once A.P is hit NA channels close and K channels open to repolarize.
1. The Sinoatrial node depolarizes and is main pacemaker, once SA node crosses threshold, action potential goes through atrial muscle and myocardium receives it from intercalated discs and atria contract. Ventricles start to fill now Atrioventrcular node now reaches threshold but is delayed so atria can relax. Action potential then goes into Bundle of HIS depolarization then works along walls of ventricles until contraction occurs.
Explain the function of having a protracted (300 msec) cardiac action potential
function is to have a quick contraction and refractory period as the heart contracts multiple times a minute
beginning electrical activity in atria
delay of contraction in ventricles while atria still contract
interval between ventricular depolarization and repolarization.
represents ventricular depolarization, pressure in ventricles falls, once below pressure in atria valves open and restarts
amount of blood pumped out of heart
the autonomic system will raise or slow cardiac output depending on the state the body is, fight or flight-sympathetic
increase physical activity calls increase in blood in capillaries based on 0xygen, capillaries open which causes decrease in resistance of flow of blood
Compliance is the flexibility of blood vessels, and it decreases blood pressure as there isn’t as much pressure on artery walls
highest pressure created by contraction of ventricles
lowest pressure when ventricles are relaxed
the average of systolic and diastolic
the smallest arteries, surrounded by smooth muscle so radius is always changing which varies resistance, the smooth muscle causes vasodilation or constriction, so less blood will flow during constriction because of the higher pressure.
1. Understand what vascular tone (vasomotor tone) is, and its function
Amount of tension in the smooth muscle in the blood vessel, causes vasodilation or constriction
When metabolic rate changes will the change of blood flow, function is to keep blood flow at the level needed to support the metabolic rate at that time
Smallest blood vessels where blood exchanges materials with cellular fluid.
Function is to allow proper and maximum nutrient exchange
Bulk Flow is the movement of fluids and their dissolved substances down a pressure gradient.
Baroreceptors, on aortic arch and carotid, monitor blood pressure, communicate with medulla, cluster of neurons vasomotor center and monitors receptors. If bp is slow vasomotor center causes arterial walls to constrict, and blood pressure goes up. If high bp is read, medulla backs off signal and allows arteries to dilate
system is regulated by hormones
If bp drops for 20-30min, kidneys release renin-long term
Renin activates angiotensins enzyme in blood stream
Causes increase in vasomotor tone and up goes blood pressures arteries squeeze one blood
Renin also targets adrenal glands, and adrenal tissue pumps out aldosterone
same as renin system, but aldosterone talks to nephrons in kidneys, which filter usually
Nephrons can filter back in electrolytes, aldosterone tells nephrons to increase absorbing of sodium, and chloride will follow- salt retention
Salt retention increase fluid volume, added water raises the blood pressure
primary coagulation protein
if hematocrit goes down systemic hypoxia occurs, kidneys respond by releasing the hormone erythropoietin which is picked up by the red bone marrow and the marrow increases production of red blood cells.
as they are pushed throughout arteries they start to break down and eventually cannot do their job and are removed by the spleen
general phagocytosis of microbes, don’t know when to stop until they explode 40-70%
immature macrophages 4-8%, antigen presentation, once engulf microbe shows to other cells in immune system and turns on immune response advanced scouts
T and b cells- T takes out viral and pre cancerous infections
B cells make antibodies to latch to microbes
1. Describe the general anatomy and function of platelets
fragments of cells not complete no nucleus, plug holes
once vessel is lacerated, tunic media spasms hard, minimizing lose of blood quick response but last 30 minutes max
chemical signal that platelets give off once collagen comes in contact causes other platelets to stick
enzymes in the blood that create domino affect for clot to continue
inactive form once activated forms non-water soluble fibers and traps the blood cells
activated by tearing lining of blood vessel-blood hits collagen, factor 12 hits collagen and becomes active, 12 then activates factor 11, 11 activates 9, 9 activates 10, 10 activates prothrombin which activates fibrin, fibrin activates factor 8
caused by tissue damage Activates thromboplastin, activates factor 10- prothrombin then fibrin, then factor 8
Plasminogen activator is blood, keeps little plasmin active, so if fibrin forms inappropriately then it can be removed- keeps blood forming
1. Explain the difference between nonspecific immune responses (innate immune system) and specific immune responses
Nonspecific defense, inherited, and have same level of protection no matter exposure, Adaptive and will become more effectiveness as exposure to the microbe continues, have to recognize them vs. us
no living cells for virus’ to affect, mircrobes just sit on that surface
Langerhans cells- advance scouts of immune system, look for microbes, if found do antigen presentation
line hollow organs that open to outside environment, microbes get stuck in mucous, another mechanical barrier
tears salvia, nasal mucous, antibacterial- causes holes in wall in bacteria cells
series of enzymes in blood plasma proteins also antibacterial, forms holes in bacteria wall
decease in vasomotor tone, and brings more blood to sight of infection to bring more clean up crew
swell up, vasodilation, complement protein into site of infection
convert to fibrin traps bacteria and they cant spread
when macrophages squeeze through cleft in capillary after interacting with selectin
chemicals that attract phagocytes to infection
when protein opsonin integrates into bacteria cell wall and marks these cells to be destroyed
released by microbes to raise boy temperature
1. Explain the role of fever; explain how a fever is generated
Role of fever is to create unfavorable environment and to kill them with higher temp. Generated when pyrogens are released into the body
By marking all cells with mhc markers which are inherited, the natural killer cells can determine the difference because of the mhc and, compromised cells will not show mhc marker
1. Understand what antigen presentation is, which cells are involved, and how it assists the specific immune process
started by macrophages, phagocytizes non-self and destroys it, takes bits and sticks in plasma membrane along with mhc marker. Immune system con now recognize quicker as the parts are in cell walls
1. Explain what MHC self-antigens are, and their role
Mhc self antigens are antigens which are inherited from parents which is like a personal bar code for cells, compromised cells will not show mhc, shows healthy vs non-healthy
1. Explain the role of T-cell and B-cell receptors
Receptors are formed when these cells are created, ability to recognize wide variety of microbes in the body
Free flowing versions of t and b cell receptors, are plasma cells that mutate and have subtly differences for attacking wide variety of microbes. Antibodies bind to cells which makes them not able to replicate, become big target for phagocytosis
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