Group 1: Minor endolaryngeal lacerations/hematoma without detectable fracture Group 2: edema, hematoma, minor mucosal disruptions without exposed cartilage, nondisplacedfractures on CT Group 3: Massive edema, mucosal tears, exposed cartilage, VC immobility, displaced fractures (surgical repair) Group 4: Group 3 plus 3-4 more fractures and massive mucosal damage requireing stenting (surgical repair) Group 5: Laryngotracheal separation (surgical repair)
What are 5 late complications that can occur with extensive laryngeal fractures (Schaeffer's Group 3-5)?
Vocal Cord Paralysis
Airway Compromise (and difficulty with extubation)
What are the three different types of nasal fractures?
Class I - fractures tend not to cause gross lateral displacement of the nasal bones
Class II - a frontal impact tends to comminute the nasal bones and cause gross flattening and widening of the dorsum while a lateral impact produces a high deviation of the nasal skeleton (complex "C-shaped")
Class III - also called the naso-orbito-ethmoid fractures & associated with fractures of the maxillae