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the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principal of “one person, one vote”
thoughts about right and wrong; how things ought to be
All change over time – identified by philosophers
the idea that society is organized in a way where a small group has power way and rest of society doesn’t because of God’s plan.
more opposed to government involvement in personal life rather than government involvement in economic life
less opposed to government regulation of private life and more opposed to government involvement in economic life
a belief that or feeling that people have that a government is right, just or moral and, therefore, ought to be obeyed
we all get to make a real choice on Election Day – different candidates representing different ideas
a naturally existing moral order; the belief that rational creatures know what the moral order is
the public resolution or management of conflict within a basic consensus of community
a state run government; a collection of independently governed states
a system of government in which power is divided, by constitution, between a central government and regional governments
returning power to the states through block grant that aimed to reduce the national governments control
Issue about whether the state of New York could grant a monopoly to a mans steamboat company to operate an exclusive service between New York and New Jersey. This case reinforced the nationalistic interpretation of the Constitution
Who were the two men recruited as symbolic leaders of the push for a new constitution?
programs are removed from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national government to the state and local governments
Gun free zones around schools
federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent
a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote. This has been used at the level of state government in 24 states and the District of Columbia and is also common at the local government level
· Device adopted by a number of states around 1900, allows proposed laws to be placed on the general election ballot and submitted directly to the states voters, bypassing the state legislature and governor
Political knowledge and participation
Representative democracy (republic) is a system of government in which the populace selects representatives who play a significant role in governmental decision-making, and a direct democracy permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies instead of representatives
wrote about the necessity of a government authority; he believed that governments should have limits on the powers they exercised and that political systems are based on the idea of “contract theory”- that they people of a country voluntarily give up some freedom in exchange for an ordered society. (Central in shaping the three-branch system of government)
advocated the key idea that power needed to be balanced by power and could be achieved through the separation of governing powers. (Central in shaping the three-branch system of government)
(1) the New England merchants; (2) the southern planters; (3) the “royalists”-holders of royal lands, offices, and patents (licenses to engage in a profession or business activity); (4) short keepers, artisans, and laborers; and (5) small farmers
Debts and other financial problems forced the British Government to search for new revenue sources (colonies) that paid very little taxes to Brittan. Debt also arose from the expenses during the French and Indian War
The forces representing shopkeepers, artisans, laborers, and small farms continued to shake for political and social change
The Declaration identified and focused on grievances, aspirations, and principles that might unify the various colonial groups. This was an attempt to identify and articulate a history and set of principles that might help to forge national unity
The Article of Confederation
a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government
Competition among the states for foreign commerce allowed the European powers to play the states against one another
The Annapolis Convention caused a resolution calling Congress to send commissioners to Philadelphia at a later time. This improved and reformed the Articles of Confederation
It provided critics of the Articles of Confederation with precisely the evidence they needed to push the Annapolis resolution through the Congress
In the House, the seats are apportioned according to “population” in which five slaves would count as three free persons. They were still not allowed to vote though
having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses
mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches
presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election cast ballots for president and vice president
the first 10 amendments to the constitution that ensure certain rights and liberties to the people
the enumerated powers were meant to be a source of strength to the national government, not a limitation on it; also known as the necessary and proper clause
the power of the courts to review and, if necessary, declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional
Article VI clause which provided that national laws and treaties “shall be the supreme law of the land” and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision
Federalists supported the constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention and preferred a strong national government. They were united in their support of the constitution. The Antifederalists favored strong state governments and a weak national government, and were opponents of the constitution proposed at the convention. The preferred a federal system of government that was decentralized and they were divided over possible alternatives to the Constitution. The issue that divided them was the Federalist Papers because they supported the ratification of the Constitution and dismissed fears of a strong national authority
85 essays written supporting ratification and defending the principles of the Constitution
a central government shares power or functions with lower levels of government such as regions or states
17 expressed powers granted to the national government, found in Article I Section 8, which include the power to collect taxes, coin money, declare war, and regulate commerce
the 10th amendment states that the powers that the Constitution does not delegate to the national government or prohibit to the states are “reserved to the States respectively, or to the people”
obligations, spelled out in Article IV, that were intended to promote national unity and to make the states less like independent countries and more like parts of a single nation. Two examples include the dull faith and credit clause and the privileges and immunities clause
local governments have no status in the Constitution. They became important in the early years of the republic because states possessed little administrative capability and relied on local governments like cities and counties to implement the laws of the state
most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments
the system since the New Deal in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities to pursue national defined goals, with national and state governments sharing powers and resources view intergovernmental cooperation
intergovernmental cooperation and sharing have blurred a once clear distinguishing line, making it difficult to say where the national government ends and the state and local governments begin
involved the question of whether Congress had the power to charter a national bank
Congress gives money to state and local governments if they agree to spend it for the purposes Congress specifies
national standards that make the state and local policies in the areas of environmental protection, social services, and education more uniform from coast to coast than other nationally funded policies
the principles that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain policy areas
regulations or new conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the national government
the federal government provided money to local governments and counties with no strings attached; localities could spend the money as they wished
Required sheriffs to do background checks on people buying guns
Jay Dow "The Federalist and Anti-Federalist Debates"
Federalist No. 10-James Madison
Federalist No. 51-James Madison
trying to influence legislatures to vote a certain way
efforts by groups to influence public policy through contact with public officials
· Strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation or other public by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature.
group of people who are organized to win elections, take control of government, and make/influence policy
any organization that actively seeks to influence public policy; a faction, pressure group, special interest or organized interest group
· A group of individuals who organize to influence the governments programs and policies.
· Includes membership organization, businesses, corporations, universities
Provides a way to express conflict and change administration in a non-violent way
merit based hiring for government jobs. Weakened the parties by taking away the favors they could give.
voting with candidates all from the same party
vote for the best candidate, despite the party, often creating a mixed party ballot
Political Action Committees
Political parties control the government, have a stable base of mass popular support, and create internal mechanisms for controlling funding, information and nominations. The US has had 6 party systems since 1789
Era of Good Feelings
situation in which one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of the US Congress. Weakens the power of the government
What do we need to know about the divided government?
-Official ballot, has all of the candidates instead of republ. and democr. that means that the results can have different people in different parties
work together to introduce new laws and alter old laws, control corruption in government departments, encourage political participation, promote political education, play a role in political elections at both the local and national level
Things parties do
· Political parties arose from the electoral process
· Parties recruit candidates
· Parties organize nominations
· Parties help get out the vote
· Parties organize power in congress
· Presidents need them
individuals tend to identify with one of the two major parties. Identification with a particular party is based on the shared views and interests of the individual and the party
the acknowledgement of a diversity of political systems
people may vote in a party’s primary only if they are registered members of that party prior to Election Day
· only registered members of a political party may vote in a primary election to select a parties candidates.
voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before his or her term has ended
· Allow voters to remove governors and other state officials from office prior to the expiration of their terms
- About the amount of money you can spend on yourself and whether it is unconstitutional to set limits on ones spending on themselves.
trying to gain the support of the people by giving information on your viewpoint or ideas
· has one angle in an executive branch program, another angle in a senate or house legislative committee or subcommittee, and a third angle in some highly stable and well organized interest group
Total representatives and senator, Missouri has 10.
total of 535 votes but really 538 with D.C included.
-Whoever gets the most votes in the state gets the electoral votes.
-Need the majority to win the election (240)
-Vice president is decided in senate if no one wins.
daily Internet users who participate in society and politics through online activities
the ability of the media to bring attention to particular issues
· The power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems.
when there is an error in choosing the individuals or groups to take part in a scientific study
· Polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studied.
the power of the media to influence our perspective of a particular issue or situation (crime)
· Medias ability to influence how the American people interpret political events and results
anything that is a political consequence and affects how people rank or rate politicians
· Process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or political actor.