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were more educated, wealthy, and urban than most Americans. They shared some of the following core ideas:
• people were self-interested
• the distribution of wealth was the principal source of political conflict
• the main object of government was protecting private property
• and that power should be set against power to balance government.
Harold Lasswell (1938): “who gets what, when and how”
David Easton (1953): “authoritative allocation of values”
the structure, that is the institutions and mechanisms of government
the functions and powers of government
the procedures through which government carries its powers and responsibilities
the declaration of independence
the articles of confederation
proposal at the constitutional convention that called for a two house legislature with a house of representatives apportion on the basis of population and a senate that would represent each state equally regardless of population
civil liberties can be seen as the shield that protects us from governmental authorities
republican form of government
equal representation in the senate
equality with other states
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Smith v. Allwright (1944)
Shelley v. Kraemer (1948)
Sweat v. Painter (1950)
Brown versus Board of Education (1954)
landmark law that outlawed racial segregation in schools and public places and barred discrimination in employment based on sex
Maryland tried to impose a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland.
-The Supreme court used the “necessary and proper clause” of the constitution.
-the Constitution grants to Congress “implied powers” for implementing the Constitution’s express powers
-State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal Government.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824):
The Supreme Court held that the power to regulate interstate commerce, granted to Congress by the “Commerce Clause” of the Constitution, encompassed the power to regulate navigation
Dred Scott (1857):
· Supreme Court held that African Americans, whether enslaved or free, could not by American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court
· The federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
· The Bill of Rights could not be applied to state governments
· Specifically looked at the 5th Amendment’s guarantee that government takings of private property for public use require just compensation, are restrictions on the federal government alone.
· Marshall also stated the first 10 amendments contain no expression indicating an intention to apply them to the State governments.
NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel (1937):
· The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 was constitutional
· Ended the court’s striking down of the New Deal Economic legislation
· Increased Congress’s power under the Commerce Clause
the act of declaring a national law null and void within a state’s borders
organization of people who share a common concern or value and who engage in collective action to make demands on others in society with respect to those interests
2 general objectives:
Seek new positive benefits to promote the groups interestdef
interest groups form in reaction to problems created by particular social/economic events
part of the pluralist theorygroups form because of a spontaneous coalescing of common interests around a common goal
group leaders overcome the free rider problem by offering selective benefits or mandatory membership.
Special interest groups exist because they have overcome the free rider problem by attracting their members using other means.
theory that interest groups form as a result of a deal-an exchange - between a group entrepreneur & an unorganized interest that may be underrepresented or not represented at all.
similar to by-product: groups weigh the costs of membership, is it be
groups that take positions and are active on only one specific issue(such as abortion,guns, environment, etc.)
single interest groups on both sides of the question (anti and abortion)take extreme, uncompromising position on a single issue
Lobbying & Lobbyists
lobbying: activity of a group or person that attempts to influence public policy making on behalf of the individual or the group
lobbyists: individuals whose job is to contact and attempt to influence governmental officials on behalf of others
form of indirect lobbying that signals to politicians that a particular issue is of concern to more than just one isolated segment of the public.
A means of expanding an interest group's influence that involves working with other groups
the exchange of support on issues in order to gain mutual advantage
"you support me on my issue, and i'll support yours"
A lawsuit filed to test the constitutionality of some government policy
Most famous is Brown v. Board of Education. NAACP provided the resources and the strategy to challenge the segregation policy in the courts
Amicus curiae brief "friend of the court"
Document containing legal support to for a desired outcome in a case filed by. 3rd party who is not directly involved cause of interest of outcome
Sometimes the argument can be persuasive enough for supreme court to quote from them
Political Action Committees (PACs)
organizations specifically created to raise money and make political contributions on behalf of an interest group.
because corporations/ labor unions are prohibited from making campaign contributions directly to candidates federal law limits a
can raise unlimited amount of money, but may not contribute directly to candidate or candidate campaigns
unlimited amounts of money. can engage in voter mobilization & issue advocacy, but cannot expressly advocate the election or defeat of a particular candidate(deal in soft money)
tax-exempt organizations that can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money to promote "social welfare". They may advocate for or against candidates, but political activities cannot become their primary purpose. They can keep their donors and names
Federal election campaign act (FECA)
1971 Act that allowed unions & corporations to form political action committees to raise & contribute campaign funds to candidates.
individual- $1,000PACs-$5,0001979 campaign finance laws changed to permit unlimited contributions
Campaign contributions made directly to candidates and regulated by law
campaign contributions unregulated by federal or state law, usually given to parties and party committees to help fund general party activities
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act ( McCain Feingold Act)
limits hard-money contributions during each election cycle to $2000 from individuals & $5000 from PACs. New set of reforms passed in 2002 to replace FECA. Primary goal is to eliminate soft money.
tangible benefits that are provided to members of a group. they have a concrete value and are usually economic. e.i. reduced health insurance or discounts at stores.
concept that describes democracies with competitive parties in which one party wins control of the government based on its policy proposals
benefits provided by interest groups that are available to members only
the component of a political party that is made up of elected and appointed government officeholders who are associated with a political party
voting (most widespread)
citizen initiated contact w/ govt officials (interest groups, lobbying)
the more powerful define the less powerful
whose decisions are followed
who opposes significant change
degree of deviation from the norm
significance of the norm that is defied
degree of certainty that the defiance is not simply unintended noncompliance
you defy the group on an important issue, the group reaction to your defiance will likely be influenced by which of the following
impeaching and trying executive and judicial officials
helping select leaders in the executive branch
to represent different interests
the energy associated with a single executive
vague constitutional provisions that assertive presidents interpreted broadly to enhance presidential power
rising public expectations
commander in chief of the military
division of labor
maintenance of files and record
appointment of agency heads
control of budgets
marbury vs madison (1803)
U.S. courts of appeals
amendments to the constitution that may introduce term limits for judges
a judge leaving by death or voluntary retirement
president has been active in recommending legislation
contemporary presidents propose up to ⅓ of bills on the legislative agenda
presidents almost always get their legislative items on the agenda
party and ideology
most important determinants of presidential success in congress
presidential bargaining system/ability
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