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15. An electoral candidate without a political party affiliation
a. has the daunting task of creating his or her own primary election.
b. is not allowed to run for the office of governor.
c. is called an independent candidate.
d. must compete in at least one primary election.
e. must declare a party affiliation upon winning office.
16. Which of the following accurately describes the Help America Vote Act?
a. It effectively standardized election procedures.
b. It created the early voting option.
c. It made the use of literacy tests illegal.
d. It banned the use of electronic voting devices.
e. It applied only to southern states with a history of voter intimidation.
17. On what day are national elections held?
a. The first Tuesday in November
b. The second Tuesday in November
c. November 6
d. The first Tuesday after the first Monday in November
e. The first Tuesday after the second Monday in November
18. The candidate who already holds the office up for election is called the
c. party official.
20. Voter turnout refers to
a. the number of people casting ballots in a given election.
b. the number of people registered to vote in a given election.
c. the number of candidates on a ballot in a given election.
d. the number of the population eligible to participate in an election.e. the number of voters turned away from voting locations sue to ineligibility.
2. Which of the following most accurately describes patronage?
a. Party leaders replacing retired elected officials
b. The selection of party delegates to attend conventions
c. The selection of candidates to be party nominees
d. A party drafting its statement of beliefs
e. Rewards from elected officials for campaign supporters
3. Which of the following is not a function of political parties?
a. To recruit candidates for office
b. To provide logistical support for candidates
c. To mobilize voters
d. To build cohesion between the state party and the directives of the national party
e. To support candidates by providing fundraising and advertising
4. Which of the following is not part of the state party organization?
a. Precinct chairs
b. The state party chair
c. The state executive committee
d. State convention delegates
e. The state committee vice chair
5. State political parties fulfill which of the following functions?
a. Relying on the orders of the national party organization for direction
b. Participating in the election of state senators for other states
c. Participating in the election of state party chairs for other states
d. Nomination of presidential candidates
e. Nomination of the vice presidential candidate
6. The theoretical view that each party should hold firmly to a clear and consistent set of policies refers to
a. the responsible party model.
b. the electoral competition model.
c. the organized interests model.
d. the international interests model.
e. the conditional party model.
7. Which of the following characteristics does not describe the “chronic minority?”
a. A group that rarely wins elections
b. A group that rarely achieves majority status
c. A group that is very motivated for active engagement in politics
d. A group that sees few reasons for active engagement in politics
e. A group that must look outside its area for representation
8. Where a temporary party organization _______; a permanent party organization _______.
a. is controlled by Democrats; is controlled by Republicans
b. chooses national nominees; chooses state nominees
c. conducts party business between the primaries and conventions; is the primary and convention gathering itself
d. is where party officials meet; is where ordinary party members meet
e. is where ordinary party members meet; is where party officials meet
10. By the year _________, Democrats were unable to effectively challenge Republicans for any statewide office.
12. Which of the following best describes a grassroots organization?
a. A group where decision making is bipartisan in nature
b. An organization that does not discriminate in allowing membership
c. A group in which decision making resides with average citizens
d. A group that makes contributions to candidates of only one party
e. An organization whose operating expenses are tax deductible
13. What would make a runoff primary necessary?
a. A legislative vacancy
b. Three or more candidates receiving more than 20 percent of the vote in the primary
c. The Texas Senate rejecting a gubernatorial appointment when the legislative session convenes
d. No candidate in the primary election receiving a majority
e. One candidate winning both the Democratic and Republican primaries
14. Which two party officers do primary voters elect?
a. The city manager and precinct chair
b. The precinct chair and county chair
c. The county chair and state chair
d. The state vice chair and state chair
e. The city manager and the county chair
15. Which of the following accurately describes the “Texas Two-Step?”
a. Party candidates must win a two-step election process.
b. Candidates seeking nominations must win both local and statewide votes.
c. Candidates seeking nominations must win the support of both voters and party leaders.
d. Texas Democrats allocate presidential nominating delegates both by election and caucus.
e. Texas Republicans cast votes for presidential nominating delegates both during the primaries and convention.
16. At national conventions today,
a. state delegations focus most prominently on representation of local interests.
b. the national party is able to force state parties to adopt policy positions.
c. the state parties’ roles are of increasing strength.
d. state parties are assured equal representation
e. the presidential campaign organization tends to dominate.
17. Which is held on the same day as the party primary?
a. The state party convention
b. The national party convention
c. The county party convention
d. The precinct party convention
e. The senatorial district party convention
18. Which parties may choose to use conventions to nominate candidates rather than primary elections?
a. Any party that had a nominee on the ballot in the last gubernatorial election
b. Parties that won less than 20 percent in the last gubernatorial election
c. The party that won the last presidential election
d. The party that won the last gubernatorial election
e. Only the Democrats and Republicans
19. Following the election of 2010, Republicans held which of the following elected offices in Texas?
a. The governor
b. The lieutenant governor
c. The attorney general
d. The comptrollere. All of the above
1. Organized interests
2. Economic interest groups in Texas include
3. The phenomena of legislators and members of the executive branch moving easily from government office to lucrative positions with lobbying firms is called
4. The idea that a greater number of organized interests means wider participation and a healthier democracy is called
5. The idea that a greater number of narrow interests makes it difficult to formulate public policy that will serve the broader public interest is called
6. Which of the following is not a factor that plays into the decision to join an interest group?
7. Which of the following describes public interest groups?
8. Which of the following describes trade associations?
9. Which of the following describes labor unions?
10. _________ is the method used by organized interests to try to shape public policy by influencing those elected or appointed to office, often through face-to-face meetings.
11. _________ is when a group takes its case to court, filing a lawsuit because it believes the rights of its members have been violated.
12. How does the part-time nature of Texas government create greater opportunity for the influence of organized interests than in states with full-time government?
a. Legislation receives greater scrutiny in Texas than in other legislatures.
b. Legislators have ample professional staff.
c. Governors make very few appointments to important positions.
d. Legislators are more available for one-on-one lobbying sessions.
e. Legislators rely upon interests for the information they provide.
13. Organized interests can best overcome the free-rider problem to join by providing
a. collective goods that everyone can enjoy.
b. collective goods that only group members can enjoy.
c. selective incentives that everyone can enjoy.
d. selective incentives that only group members can enjoy.
e. none of the above
14. A benefit for joining a group that is merely the good feelings one enjoys from voicing his or her support for a worthy cause is a(n) ____________ benefit.
15. Texas’s Office of State-Federal Relations would be an example of which type of organized interest?
c. Labor union
d. Trade association
e. Professional association
16. Contributing funds to candidates through a political action committee (PAC) is an example of organized interest
17. Organized interests represent constituents in all but which of the following ways?
a. Groups can speak for voters whose representatives are of the rival party.
b. Groups can be a collection of practitioners of specific professions to voice their concerns.
c. Interests groups provide a forum for those who share a position on a certain policy.
d. Organized interests focus most centrally on equal representation across geographical areas.
e. Organized interests bring party leaders’ attention to important policy issues.
18. Why are state and federal laws limiting organized interest contributions to campaigns quite limited in their effectiveness in keeping interest group money out of elections?
a. Organized interests largely ignore such laws.
b. Groups can spend unlimited amounts of money if there is no coordination with a candidate.
c. Laws do not empower any entity to prosecute offenders of such laws.
d. Campaigns are not required to report from whom their contributions come.
e. The penalties for violating such laws do not deter illegal activity.
19. Which of the following is a defining feature of an astroturf movement?
a. It is propelled primarily by political elites.
b. The movement will reflect public opinion quite accurately
c. The movement occurs largely without the necessity of funding.
d. It involves the efforts primarily of average citizens.
e. The movement has little interest in influencing elected officials.
20. Which of the following is true about Texas law on lobbyists and political contributions to legislators?
a. Restrictions on contributions to Texas legislators are enforced by the federal government.
b. There are no restrictions so long as the contributor registers with the state government.
c. Contributions are prohibited during the legislative session.
d. Lobbyists must report their exact earnings for their lobbying efforts to the state.
e. Lobbyists are only permitted to represent one organized interest per calendar year.
When discussing “the basics” of local government, the authors focus on an important concept: that all local governments exist as an arm of the state government. Which of the following sources is most related to this basic idea of local government?
Which of the following statements inaccurately describes the history and function of county government?
Which of the following is characteristic of county governments in Texas?
Elected officials include the commissioners court.
Property taxes play what role in county and state income?
They permit the state to avoid the use of income taxes.
Where home rule cities ______, general law cities ______.
make up around 30 percent of cities in Texas; make up around 70 percent of cities in Texas
Which of the following is not a form of city government found in Texas?
Which of the following forms of city government is the most commonly found in Texas?
Which of the following is not a type of city election found in Texas?
In which type of city election do voters cast the same number of votes as number of seats on the council?
Which of the following is an example of a major political issue being dealt with by city governments?
Zoning and planning policies
City governments are one example of local governments in Texas. Other than city governments, all of the following are also examples of local governments except
Dillon’s Rule describes a principle that assumes ______ to be a creature of _______.
local government; state government
The concept that the national government sets up policy guidelines and then expects the state government to pay for the programs is known as
The governing body for Texas counties is the
e. council of county managers.
Elections in which candidates’ names and party affiliations appear on the ballot are called
Which of the following accurately describe a merit or civil service system?
Government jobs are based on qualifications and formal training.
Justices of the peace and constables serve as judicial officers for what kind of cases?
Minor criminal cases
Which of the following describes city charters correctly?
Home rule city voters approve of their city’s charter.
Machine politics refers to
local party bosses who use the patronage system for jobs and benefits.
Which of the following is not a service provided by municipal utility districts?
In the Introduction of Chapter 1, the authors note the difference between legendary Texas and true Texas history. Which of the following examples of this difference did the authors suggest?
The frontier image of Texas versus business innovation in the global marketplace.
In the Texas Geography section of Chapter 1, the authors note the relationship between the land of Texas and the mentality of Texans. Which of the following is the authors’ example of Texans’ mentality being shaped by the state’s geographic size?
The sense that Texas is a place of limitless potential
Which of the following are noted by the authors as contributors to the “birth of Texas traditions?”
Both the Spanish and the French
In the Mexican Independence section of Chapter 1, what was a noted motivation for Mexican independence from Spain?
The demand that those born in the New World be endowed with the same rights as those born in Europe
In the Texas Revolution section of Chapter 1, which of the following was not among the divisive issues during the revolution and subsequent Texas independence?
Texans needed to choose between statehood in the United States or being an independent republic.
Which of the following events followed closely the forming of the Republic of Texas?
Sam Houston was elected as president.
Texas’s statehood in the United States
was not made official in 1846.
Texas’s secession from the United States
was formally established in 1861.
Reconstruction in Texas met the demands of Radical Republicans in Congress
through the Texas Constitution of 1869.
Which one of the following was not an influential “Redeemer” following the end of Reconstruction in Texas?
Which of the following was not an area of change in Texas’s “Era of Reform?”
In the authors’ description of Texas during the Great Depression and New Deal, which of the following did not occur?
The booming oil industry spared the Texas economy from the effects of the Depression.
In the section Transitions to the Twenty-first Century, the authors write, “Texas spent the rest of the twentieth century in transition.” Which of the following is noted in that section as a transition?
The growth of women’s political rights and participation
Which of the following political culture types is most rarely found in Texas?
Texas history can be best understood as
a long string of transitions that often brought conflict between old ways and new ways.
The question of whether or not the United States should annex Texas, was most heavily influenced and delayed by
the issue of slavery.
All of the following have been causes of major transitions in Texas politics except
the rise to prominence of cowboys in Texas government in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
The rise of the Grange and the “Redeemers” was important because
it led to the writing of a constitution that is still in use in Texas today.
The reform movement in Texas became occupied with the issue of prohibition of the consumption of alcohol because
Texas lacked the large corporations and big-city political machines that energized the reform movement in the North.
Texas reduced its reliance on most forms of taxation in the first part of the twentieth century because of
a large influx of funds from the rapidly growing oil industry.
Texas has a history of electing “colorful” governors such as “Pa” Ferguson and “Pappy” O’Daniel because
the size of the state makes it difficult to create political organizations and gives an advantage to those who can “stand out.”
The weakening of the influence of Civil War allegiances in Texas has led to the growing power of the Republican Party because
conservatives have been willing to abandon the Democratic Party.
Traditionalistic political culture is characterized by
the belief that the intervention of community forces is sometimes necessary to advance the public good.
Today the identity of what it means to be a Texan has become unclear because of
the increasing irrelevance of the elements of that identity to the lives of Texans.
Compared to national averages Texas
has a larger economy.
In the past Hispanics have been __________ in political conflict in Texas, and in the future they are likely to be __________.
The decision of the Texas State Board of Education concerning how to identify the heroes of the Alamo illustrates
the tendency to undervalue the contributions of Hispanics to Texas history.
Texas struggles to meet its current challenges, in part, because its government is
When introducing the chapter on the Texas Constitution, the authors describe the majority view of Texans as
wanting a fiscally restrained and unobtrusive government.
Where the U.S. Constitution is ____ and ____, the Texas Constitution is ____ and ____.
brief and flexible; long and detailed
In creating a federal system, the founders of the U.S. Constitution were agreeing to
a compromise between a confederacy and a unitary form of government.
Where ______ federalism addresses the distribution of power between the national government and the state governments, ______ federalism addresses the distribution of power at the state government level.
All of the following statements are true concerning the legislative branch of government in the current Texas Constitution except
the members of the legislature set their own salaries.
The Texas executive branch is called a plural executive because
the governor shares power with several other officials who are elected separately.
All members of the Texas judiciary are
The Texas Constitution is criticized for
containing too many specific policy restrictions.
According to your text, the winners under the current constitutional rules tend to be
A mechanism that allows voters to gather signatures on a petition in order to place statutes or constitutional amendments on a ballot is
The U.S. Constitution restricts government power through the application of all of the following except
detailed policy provisions.
According to your text, the ______ and the _____ generate opposing views of the division of powers between the federal and state governments.
supremacy clause of the U.S. Constitution; Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
All of the following help to define federalism except
checks and balances contained in the U.S. Constitution.
Federalism has always generated a great deal of controversy because
the actual distribution of powers is not clear in the U.S. Constitution.
According to the text, the most prominent feature of the current Texas Constitution is
distrust of government.
A major consequence of the Texas constitutional provisions for a short, biennial legislature with low salaries is
b. the legislature is dominated by people who work for or own businesses that do business with the state or are regulated by the state.
The authors of the text conclude that the Texas Constitution is
badly outdated and should be replaced.
States generally prefer that the federal government provide them money in the form of block grants because they
provide the most flexibility in how the money may be used.
According to the U.S. Constitution
the federal constitution supersedes all other state laws and state constitutions.
All of the following descriptions of power under federalism are correct except
the power to coin money is a concurrent power.
The Defense of Marriage Act involves the federal issue of
whether Congress can release the states from their obligation to honor same-sex marriages performed in other states.
All of the following statements are true concerning the annexation of Texas by the United States except
Texas retained the right to secede from the Union when it was annexed.
All of Texas’s constitutions have tended to reflect Texans’
opposition to inequality.
The current Texas Constitution creates a governor who
is very weak.
All the following statements concerning provisions of the Texas and Connecticut constitutions regarding religious liberty are true except
both constitutions prohibit religious tests to hold office.
Which of the following is a basic characteristic of the Texas Legislature?
The governor may call special sessions of the legislature.
Hybrid of citizen and professional legislature
Which one of the following statements describes a realistic scenario regarding the qualifications for office and length of terms for the Texas Legislature?
A Texas resident for fifteen years who seeks election to the Texas House of Representatives
The theory of representation that holds that elected officials are agents of the majority who elected them to office and thus they should carry out, to the extent possible, the wishes of the majority is the _________ model.
Elections to the North Dakota House of Representatives are different from elections to the Texas House of Representatives in that
North Dakota uses multi-member districts.
Which of the following described difference between the Texas House and Texas Senate is accurate?
The presiding officer of the Senate is chosen by popular vote.
Texas legislative elections in the general cycle choose a plurality winner. What is required to win?
One must win more votes than any opponent.
The major justification for a bicameral legislature is that
it makes it more difficult for a majority to abuse its power.
The significance of the U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Baker v. Carr and Reynolds v. Sims is that
the decisions established that legislatures must be apportioned according to the one-person, one-vote standard..
The significance of the length and frequency of legislative sessions of the Texas Legislature is
the legislature is less likely to manage the state budget, handle new issues, and review actions of the executive.
A major consequence of the low pay and part-time nature of legislative life in Texas is that
legislators often work in professions or industries that have a vested interest in state policy.
Geographic representation tends to go along with a __________ theory of representation.
Demographic representation tends to go along with a __________ theory of representation.
The description of the redistricting process in Texas for the Texas Legislature and for the U.S. House of Representatives leads to the conclusion that the process is
The two parties contest many more state legislative districts in North Dakota than they do in Texas elections. This may be due, in part, to
the use of multi-member districts in North Dakota.
The drawing of district boundaries for legislative districts in the Texas Legislature must follow the rule of
one person, one vote.
The redistricting method is an example of a hybrid system, because
if the legislature is unable to pass a plan, the duty is handed over to the Legislative Redistricting Board.
Standing committees contribute to the power of the chambers of the Texas Legislature by
creating a division of labor.
The standing committees of the Texas Legislature engage in oversight of the executive branch
to assure that procedures, standards, and regulations developed by the agencies follow legislative intent.
The importance of having a blocking bill at the top of the calendar in the Texas Senate is that
it allows the Senate to choose the order in which it will take up bills on the calendar.
If you attended a session of the Texas Legislature while floor votes were being taken, you might be misled as to what is happening by
the use of ghost votes and closed riders.
If the party caucuses gain power in the Texas Legislature, the result might be
a reduction in the overall power of the Texas delegation in the U.S. Congress.
The story of the “killer bees” illustrates
the problem created for the Texas Senate by the requirement of a two-thirds majority to pass most bills.
All of the following are tactics that the minority may use to defeat a bill on the floor of the Texas Legislature except?
putting a hold on the bill
All of the following statements concerning the governor’s veto power are true except
if the governor does not sign a bill within twenty days when it is passed at the end of a session, the bill dies.
To end a filibuster in the Texas Senate, a _________ vote is necessary.
Where in the legislative process do most bills “die?”
When they are waiting to be discussed in the standing committee of policy jurisdiction
A committee created to reconcile the differences in the Texas Senate and Texas House versions of a bill is a(an) ______________ committee.
What proportion of a legislative chamber must be present to fulfill the quorum requirement?
Which of the following is a mechanism in the Texas House to allow representatives to “run out the clock” on a bill waiting to be debated?
Who chooses the chairs of the Texas Senate’s committees?
The lieutenant governor
Which type of committee is charged with research or oversight to be completed in between sessions?
Which of the following contemporary legislative realities is the most consistent with the framers’ desire for a citizen legislature?
Members are paid a low base pay.
What is the purpose of an emergency clause of proposed legislation?
It makes the bill take effect immediately upon passage.
Which of the following will most likely be given the highest priority of consideration in the Texas House of Representatives?
Major state bills
Power in the Texas Legislature is
most heavily concentrated in the offices of Speaker of the House and president of the Senate.
All of the following statements concerning the president of the Texas Senate and the Speaker of the Texas House are true except
both have a great deal of power over the legislative agenda in their legislative body.
All of the following statements concerning organization in the Texas Legislature are true except
The Gilmer-Akin Act of _______ created the modern public school system in Texas.
Which of the following is not true about the State Board of Education?
The board determines property tax rates for school district residents
In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court demand that public schools were not to be segregated based on race?
Brown v. Board of Education
On average, Texas school districts get the greatest amount of revenue from which source?
The “Robin Hood” school finance plan came as the result of which court ruling?
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby
Each of the following has established methods of holding educators accountable except
The Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX).
The No Child Left Behind Act
is the federal education act requiring schools to institute mandatory testing.
Which of the following has not been a legislative act or judicial ruling impacting education policy in Texas?
Marbury v. Madison
The Permanent University Fund (PUF) was established to help fund
the University of Texas and Texas A&M systems.
The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) is made up of _______ members who are _________.
nine; appointed by the governor
Hopwood v. Texas addressed
university admissions taking into consideration race-based criteria.
The authors cite each of the following as a major issue in the discussion of accountability in higher education except
the funding levels and sources of intercollegiate athletics.
Which of the following accurately describes poverty levels in the state of Texas?
Texas has three of the nation’s top five counties of 250,000 or more people with the highest rates of poverty.
Each of the following is a condition for receiving funds through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) except
completing the next higher level of education.
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
At the time of the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), what was the state of health insurance in Texas?
Texas led the nation in the number of uninsured residents.
What is required of Texas by the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA)?
To create a state health insurance marketplace or, if it does not do so, face the federal government creating one for it
Where Medicare benefits _______, Medicaid benefits _______.
are received by those who have paid into the program; are received by low-income elderly and disabled people regardless of ability to pay
Which describes the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) accurately?
It targets families who make too much to be on Medicaid but lack private health insurance.
Which of the following accurately describes the agenda setting step in the policymaking process?
Policymakers prioritize the various problems facing the state.
Which of the following accurately describes the policy implementation step in the policymaking process?
State agencies follow up on the actions of elected officials, and bureaucratic agencies develop rules and regulations.
Which of the following accurately describes the policy adoption step in the policymaking process?
Policymakers take formal governmental administrative action.
The authors list three types of policies at the beginning of Chapter 13. Which of the following is a type of policy mentioned?
The state general sales tax is?
the same as the motor vehicle sales, rental, or lease taxes
The taxation approach of the Texas Legislature regarding highways and toll roads is to?
increase the number of toll roads but not increase the tax revenue for highways.
The authors note several different types of taxes. Which of the following describes the sin tax?
Taxes on activities such as cigarettes and gambling
The authors note several different types of taxes. Which of the following describes the severance tax?
A tax on the extraction of natural resources
Which of the following is not a tax levied on Texans by their state?
The income tax
Which of the following characteristic is accurate regarding regressive taxation?
Texas takes a regressive approach to taxation due to the reliance on the sales tax.
Which of the following do the authors cite as an example of a regressive form of taxation?
The sales tax
Texas relies on other sources of revenue than taxes. Which of the following is accurate regarding these other sources of revenue?
Grants from the federal government make up around 40 percent of the state’s revenue.
13. The authors describe Texas as a “pay-as-you-go” state. What does the phrase “pay as you go” mean?
13. The Texas Constitution requires a balanced budget, thus limiting debt
A bill cannot be considered passed by the legislature unless the ___________ has authorized that the amount to be spent by the bill is available.
What is the primary source of Texas’s “Rainy Day Fund?”
Oil and gas taxes
Although unpopular among many groups, why does the lottery remain a revenue source for Texas?
The revenue lost from eliminating the lottery would mean spending cuts or raising other taxes.
Whereas redistributive policy _________, distributive policy ____________.
intentionally moves benefits from one group to another; does not intentionally target one specific group of society
Subsidies are incentives designed to _______ the production or purchase of certain goods.
Which of the following describe sin taxes?
Taxes on products and activities that legislators would like to discourage
The state’s largest source of investment income is?
income from the Permanent School Fund
2. All of the following statements concerning the informal characteristics of governors of Texas are true except
a. they tend to be white, Protestant, wealthy men.
b. they tend to have some higher education.
c. they tend to have some military service.
d. they tend to have some political experience.
e. they tend to be ranchers or oil men.
3. Which of the following describes the terms of service for office of governor?
a. Four-year term with a limit of two terms served
b. Four-year term with no limit on terms served
c. Two-year term with no limit on terms served
4. The __________ is first in line of succession for the office of governor in Texas.
a. lieutenant governor
b. attorney general
d. secretary of state
5. The budget power of the governor of Texas is
a. exercised through the requirement that he or she prepare a budget and submit it to the legislature.
b. relatively weak compared with that of other governors.
c. strengthened considerably by his or her use of an unrestricted line-item veto.
d. relatively strong compared with other governors.
e. exercised through his or her control of the Legislative Budget Board.
6. Among the governor’s legislative powers are all of the following except
a. the state of the state address.
b. the power to call special sessions of the legislature.
c. veto power.
d. the post-adjournment veto.
e. control over the lieutenant governor’s actions in the Senate.
7. The governor’s most significant appointment is the
a. attorney general.
b. lieutenant governor.
c. secretary of state.
d. railroad commissioner.
8. The governor’s most significant source of influence over the judiciary is
a. the power to appoint replacements when judgeships become vacant between elections.
b. the power to command the positions of the attorney general.
c. the pardon power.
d. the power to create new judgeships when needed.
e. the power to nullify judicial rulings.
9. What is the longest amount of time a Texas governor may serve?
a. Two years
b. Four years
c. Eight years
d. Twelve years
e. There is no such limit.
10. All of the following contributed to the creation of a weak governorship in the Texas Constitution except
a. the treatment of Texas in the early years of statehood.
b. the legacy of distrust of executives left over from colonial experience with the British king.
c. the treatment of Texas immigrants by Santa Anna.
d. the loss of the Civil War to a government led by a strong president.
e. the experience of living under a strong governor during Reconstruction.
11. If you wish to be elected governor of Texas, it helps to possess all of the following characteristics except
a. being white.
b. being Protestant.
c. being conservative.
d. having a colorful personality.e. being known for having a deep knowledge of public policy issues.
12. The governor of Texas is part of a plural executive because
a. the lieutenant governor exercises a great deal of power over the Texas Senate.
b. several other important members of the executive branch are elected independently.
c. the governor shares many powers with the legislature traditionally given to the executive.
d. the spouse of the governor is often a powerful figure in his/her own right.
e. the governor shares power with the Legislative Budget Board.
13. Senatorial courtesy requires that
a. the governor treat members of the Texas Senate with proper respect.
b. senators treat the governor with proper respect.
c. the party of an incumbent senator not oppose his or her renomination.
d. any gubernatorial appointee have the approval of their own state senator.e. the governor provide the members of the Texas Senate with notice that he or she intends to veto a bill
14. Governor Perry has attempted to increase his power as governor through all of the following except
a. not making new appointments while the legislature is in session and making recess appointments afterword.
b. issuing an executive order to require sixth-grade girls in Texas schools to get the HPV vaccine.
c. endorsing proposals for a new constitution.
d. issuing an executive order to reduce the time it takes coal-fired power plants to obtain a permit.
e. using his power of appointment to gain large campaign contributions from those he appoints to university regent positions.
15. In Texas the governor can do all of the following except
a. call special legislation sessions.
b. determine the subject of special legislative sessions.
c. determine the length of special legislative sessions.
d. issue executive orders.
e. issue vetoes after a legislative session has ended.
16. The governor’s informal powers are important for his or her ability to
a. manage the executive branch of government.
b. make appointments to boards and commissions.
c. receive respect from the news media.
d. accomplish his or her legislative agenda.
e. exercise his or her ceremonial duties.
17. The Texas Constitution lists _________ as grounds for impeachment of the governor.
c. high crimes
d. nothing—the Texas Constitution is silent on the grounds for impeachment
18. A major consequence of the weak governorship in the Texas Constitution is that
a. the governor provides few checks on the legislature.
b. the governor is sufficiently strong enough to control the executive branch without being too strong.
c. the legislature is kept from using the governor to further its aims.
d. the governorship is not considered to be a desirable office by ambitious politicians.
e. Texas governors get little attention outside the state.
19. When the governor appoints his or her political supporters to prominent positions, it is called
b. executive courtesy.
20. What incentive exists for the governor to make appointments in between legislative sessions?
a. The appointee will not require confirmation until the next session.
b. The appointee will not require any confirmation by the Texas Senate.
c. The appointee will be able to serve two consecutive terms.
d. The governor can seek confirmation from the Supreme Court of Texas rather than the Senate.
e. The appointee will only require a majority approval by the Senate to continue serving.
21. Under which condition could a governor most convincingly claim he or she has a popular mandate?
a. When there is a vacancy in the lieutenant governor’s office
b. Upon defeating an incumbent governor in a close contest
c. When the legislature is out of session
d. When being of the same political party as the legislature
e. After winning office with a large margin of victory
22. Which of the following best describes the governor’s powers of clemency?
a. A governor may unilaterally grant a pardon.
b. A governor is not bound to follow recommendations from the Board of Pardons and Paroles.
c. The governor’s clemency powers are stronger today than when the Texas Constitution was written.
d. The governor must get approval from the Texas Senate for a pardon.e. The clemency power does not extend to death penalty cases.
1. The __________ is often considered the most powerful position in Texas.
a. lieutenant governor
b. attorney general
d. secretary of statee. comptroller
2. The major source of the lieutenant governor’s power is
a. the possibility that he or she will replace the governor.
b. his or her public popularity.
c. his or her position as chair of the governor’s cabinet.
d. his or her role as chief advisor to the governor.
e. his or her role as president of the Senate.
3. The comptroller’s most significant job is
a. collecting taxes.
b. serving as the state auditor.
c. estimating the amount of revenue the state will generate each year.
d. managing and investing state funds.
e. proposing the state budget.
4. The greatest importance of the Texas General Land Office is that it
a. regulates mortgages in the state.
b. generates a great deal of money for the state through its management of public lands.
c. controls rights of way for railroads and highways.
d. is in charge of flood and hurricane preparation for the state.e. manages the Permanent School Fund.
5. Recently the governor has added to the job of
a. the attorney general.
b. the comptroller.
c. the railroad commissioner.
d. the secretary of state.
e. the land commissioner.
6. Which of the following is appointed by the Texas governor?
a. The secretary of state
b. The commissioner of agriculture
c. The attorney general
d. The lieutenant governor
e. The comptroller of public accounts
7. Who is solicited for advisory opinions on the constitutionality of proposed actions?
a. The attorney general.
b. The comptroller.
c. The railroad commissioner.
d. The secretary of state.e. The land commissioner.
8. All of the following are true statements concerning public education in Texas except
a. local school boards choose textbooks for their schools.
b. the state government determines the local school curriculum.
c. the state government creates statewide tests for students.
d. the state government has created standards for school curriculum that question the basis for the separation of church and state.
e. the state government rates local schools.
9. All of the following statements concerning the sunset review process are true except
a. it requires that most state agencies be reviewed every twelve years.
b. ten of the twelve members of the Sunset Advisory Commission are members of the Texas Legislature.
c. the Sunset Advisory Commission develops a report on each agency and holds a public meeting concerning the agency.
d. if the Sunset Advisory Commission takes no action, the agency is automatically renewed.
e. the Sunset Advisory Commission can recommend that an agency be continued, reorganized, or merged with another agency.
10. The Texas executive branch has __________ statewide elected offices.
11. The elected officials of Texas’s executive branch serve terms of __________ years in office.
12. Which of the following commissions is elected?
a. The Texas Department of Transportation
b. The Department of State Health Services
c. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice
d. The Public Utility Commission
e. The Railroad Commission
13. Which of the following is not a responsibility of the State Board of Education?
a. Approving state curriculum and textbooks
b. Determining passing scores for state educational testing
c. Managing the Permanent School Fund
d. Appointment of the commissioner of educatione. Representation of voters
14. How many members are elected to the Texas State Board of Education?
16. Which of the following is not true about the attorney general?
a. The attorney general is the chief prosecutor for the state on major felonies.
b. The attorney general serves as legal representation for the state in court.
c. The attorney general ensures that corporations in Texas comply with state and federal laws.
d. The attorney general collects unpaid child support and delinquent state taxes.e. The attorney general issues advisory opinions to the governor’s office, the legislature, or other state agencies
17. Which of the following is not true about the agriculture commissioner?
a. The agriculture commissioner is elected by voters statewide every four years, with no term limits.
b. The agriculture commissioner occupies a constitutionally required position.
c. The agriculture commissioner heads the Texas Department of Agriculture and implements all agriculture law.
d. The agriculture commissioner inspects the accuracy of market scales and gas pumps, regulates the use of pesticides, and regulates the quality of agriculture products.
e. The agriculture commissioner promotes agriculture throughout the state.
19. Which of the following is consistent with a merit-based system?
a. The governor appointing campaign supporters to boards
b. Agencies hiring technical employees based on their education
c. Campaign workers filling staff positions after the election
d. Contracts being awarded to fundraisers
e. High-level appointments being reserved for party activists
20. Who is on the Sunset Advisory Commission?
a. The governor and legislative leaders
b. The governor and members of the judiciary
c. The attorney general and comptroller
d. The lieutenant governor and attorney generale. Legislators and appointed public members
1. In the Introduction to Chapter 7 the authors raise important questions regarding the judiciary in Texas. Which of the following is not one of the important questions raised by the author?
a. The issue of how judicial officers can be subject to disciplinary action
b. The issue of whether the complexity of the judicial system can conflict with creating justice.
c. The issue of the U.S. Supreme Court becoming involved in too many Texas judicial rulings.
d. The tendency towards secrecy of the Commission on Judicial Conduct
e. The ad hoc nature of the court system that makes it lack cohesion
2. In Chapter 7 the authors cite reasons the Texas court system is more confusing than it needs to be. Which of the following is a contributor to this confusion?
a. The jurisdiction of Texas courts
b. The involvement of the U.S. Supreme Court in most Texas judicial rulings
c. The fact that no changes or updates to the system have been made since the original writing of the Texas Constitution
d. The difficult requirements to serve as any judge or justice
e. The wide variation in costs of filing claims in Texas courts
3. Which of the following is a characteristic of local trial courts in Texas?
a. There are more than 5,000 municipal courts and justice of the peace courts.
b. Both municipal courts and justice of the peace courts only handle appellate cases.
c. Both municipal courts and justice of the peace courts only handle felony cases.
d. Local trial courts in Texas handle cases involving not more than $10,000.
e. Municipal courts have jurisdiction over most civil matters.
4. Which of the following is a characteristic of county-level trial courts in Texas?
a. There are more than 10,000 county-level courts.
b. County-level courts have jurisdiction over felony cases.
c. Some county-level courts have original jurisdiction, but none have appellate jurisdiction.
d. Most county-level court judges are appointed by county commissioners.
e. Some county-level courts were created by the Texas Constitution and some have been created by the state legislature.
5. Which of the following is a characteristic of district courts in Texas?
a. There are fewer than 200 district courts in Texas.
b. District court judges are elected in nonpartisan contests.
c. District courts in Texas handle cases involving not more than $5,000.
d. District courts have original criminal jurisdiction in all felony cases.
e. No county in Texas has more than one district court within its borders.
7. Texas’s highest appellate court level
a. is the Supreme Court of Texas.
b. is the Court of Criminal Appeals.
c. has jurisdiction only in municipal cases.
d. is made up of judges directly appointed by the president of the United States.
e. is the Supreme Court of Texas and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals.
9. In Chapter 7 the authors describe problems in the Texas judiciary. Which of the following is not cited as a problem by the authors?
a. The perception that justice can be “for sale” in Texas
b. The number of justices with no legal training
c. The problem of overlapping jurisdictions in the Texas court system
d. The problem of the Texas Legislature appointing judges based on partisanship
e. The court system is cumbersome due to ad hoc creation of powers
10. Which of the following is an alternative method of judicial selection compared to what Texas uses today?
a. All judges being elected
b. All judges being appointed with no election process
c. Judicial seats being filled by the governor until the next election
d. The legislature being able to impeach unethical judges
e. The judicial branch being able to recommend the removal of judges for questionable behavior
11. How many of the twelve grand jurors must vote to issue an indictment?
12. Judicial federalism describes a system in which judicial authority is
a. divided between levels of government.
b. shared between levels of government.
c. defined according to county and district lines.
d. defined at the national level.
e. defined at the local level.
13. A court’s jurisdiction defines that court’s
a. size of jury used in criminal cases.
b. sphere of authority.
c. proximity to the Legislative Budget Board.
d. voting population.
e. length of term.
14. A court with original jurisdiction hears _____ cases.
a. only civil
b. only criminal
c. only federal
d. only appeals
e. only initial
15. Criminal cases involve individuals
a. charged with violating laws of the state.
b. sued for damages by another individual.
c. who ask a court of law to resolve an issue.
d. who may appeal to the federal courts.
e. under contractual agreement.
16. Which of the following accurately explains the meaning of “en banc?”
a. The call for special legislation sessions
b. An appeal that is heard by a select panel of judges
c. An appeal that is heard by the entire court of appeals
d. A judge following a governor’s executive order
e. Judicial proceedings dealing with last wills and testaments
17. The party alleged to have committed the wrong at issue in a suit is called
a. the plaintiff.
b. the prosecutor.
c. the petit jury.
d. the adjunct.
e. the defendant.
18. The party claiming to have been wronged and bringing a suit is called
a. the plaintiff.
b. the prosecutor.
c. the petit jury.
d. the adjunct.
b. the defendant.
19. Compensatory damages relate to
a. monetary awards to the injured party.
b. larger monetary awards designed to punish the defendant.
c. monetary awards designed to send a message to the larger society.
d. awards to be distributed among the public.
e. fines to be paid to the state.
All of the following statements concerning the constitutional requirements for serving as governor of Texas are true except
having to have served in the military.
All of the following statements concerning the informal characteristics of governors of Texas are true except
they tend to be ranchers or oil men.
Which of the following describes the terms of service for office of governor?
Four-year term with no limit on terms served
The __________ is first in line of succession for the office of governor in Texas.
a. lieutenant governor
The budget power of the governor of Texas is
relatively weak compared with that of other governors.
Among the governor’s legislative powers are all of the following except
control over the lieutenant governor’s actions in the Senate.
The governor’s most significant appointment is the
secretary of state.
The governor’s most significant source of influence
the power to appoint replacements when judgeships become vacant between elections.
What is the longest amount of time a Texas governor may serve?
There is no such limit.
All of the following contributed to the creation of a weak governorship in the Texas Constitution except
the treatment of Texas in the early years of statehood.
If you wish to be elected governor of Texas, it helps to possess all of the following characteristics except
The governor of Texas is part of a plural executive because
several other important members of the executive branch are elected independently.
Senatorial courtesy requires that
any gubernatorial appointee have the approval of their own state senator.
Governor Perry has attempted to increase his power as governor through all of the following except
endorsing proposals for a new constitution.
In Texas the governor can do all of the following except
determine the length of special legislative sessions.
The governor’s informal powers are important for his or her ability to
accomplish his or her legislative agenda.
The Texas Constitution lists _________ as grounds for impeachment of the governor.
nothing—the Texas Constitution is silent on the grounds for impeachment
A major consequence of the weak governorship in the Texas Constitution is that
the governor provides few checks on the legislature.
When the governor appoints his or her political supporters to prominent positions, it is called
What incentive exists for the governor to make appointments in between legislative sessions?
The appointee will not require confirmation until the next session.
Under which condition could a governor most convincingly claim he or she has a popular mandate?
After winning office with a large margin of victory
Which of the following best describes the governor’s powers of clemency?
A governor is not bound to follow recommendations from the Board of Pardons and Paroles.
The __________ is often considered the most powerful position in Texas.
The major source of the lieutenant governor’s power is
his or her role as president of the Senate.
The comptroller’s most significant job is
estimating the amount of revenue the state will generate each year.
The greatest importance of the Texas General Land Office is that it
generates a great deal of money for the state through its management of public lands.
Recently the governor has added to the job of
the secretary of state
Which of the following is appointed by the Texas governor?
The secretary of state
Who is solicited for advisory opinions on the constitutionality of proposed actions?
The attorney general.
All of the following are true statements concerning public education in Texas except
local school boards choose textbooks for their schools.
All of the following statements concerning the sunset review process are true except
if the Sunset Advisory Commission takes no action, the agency is automatically renewed.
The Texas executive branch has __________ statewide elected offices.
The elected officials of Texas’s executive branch serve terms of __________ years in office.
Which of the following commissions is elected?
The Railroad Commission
Which of the following is not a responsibility of the State Board of Education?
Appointment of the commissioner of education
How many members are elected to the Texas State Board of Education?
According to the authors and Table 6.1, which state government function utilizes the largest number of employees?
Which of the following is not true about the attorney general?
The attorney general is the chief prosecutor for the state on major felonies.
Which of the following is not true about the agriculture commissioner?
The agriculture commissioner occupies a constitutionally required position
Which of the following is consistent with a merit-based system?
Agencies hiring technical employees based on their education
Who is on the Sunset Advisory Commission?
Legislators and appointed public members
In the Introduction to Chapter 7 the authors raise important questions regarding the judiciary in Texas. Which of the following is not one of the important questions raised by the author?
The issue of the U.S. Supreme Court becoming involved in too many Texas judicial rulings.
In Chapter 7 the authors cite reasons the Texas court system is more confusing than it needs to be. Which of the following is a contributor to this confusion?
The jurisdiction of Texas courts
Which of the following is a characteristic of local trial courts in Texas?
Local trial courts in Texas handle cases involving not more than $10,000.
Which of the following is a characteristic of county-level trial courts in Texas
Some county-level courts have original jurisdiction, but none have appellate jurisdiction.
Which of the following is a characteristic of district courts in Texas?
District courts have original criminal jurisdiction in all felony cases.
Which of the following is a characteristic of courts of appeals in Texas?
There are fourteen intermediate appellate courts with eighty justices.
Texas’s highest appellate court level
is the Supreme Court of Texas and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals.
With the exception of municipal court judges, all judges in Texas are
elected in partisan elections.
n Chapter 7 the authors describe problems in the Texas judiciary. Which of the following is not cited as a problem by the authors?
The problem of the Texas Legislature appointing judges based on partisanship
Which of the following is an alternative method of judicial selection compared to what Texas uses today?
All judges being appointed with no election process
How many of the twelve grand jurors must vote to issue an indictment?
Judicial federalism describes a system in which judicial authority is
shared between levels of government.
A court’s jurisdiction defines that court’s
sphere of authority.
A court with original jurisdiction hears _____ cases.
Criminal cases involve individuals
charged with violating laws of the state.
Which of the following accurately explains the meaning of “en banc?”
An appeal that is heard by the entire court of appeals
The party alleged to have committed the wrong at issue in a suit is called
The party claiming to have been wronged and bringing a suit is called
Compensatory damages relate to
monetary awards to the injured party
Punitive damages relate to each of the following except
awards to be distributed among the public
1. Which of the following constitutes a step toward total war?
a. The declining role of ideology in global politics.
b. The introduction of precision-guided "smart" bombs.
c. The breakdown of norms protecting innocent civilians.
d. Growing corruption in developing countries.
2. Who was the most eloquent European opponent of absolute war?
a. Napoléon Bonaparte.
b. Karl Maria von Clausewitz.
c. Otto von Bismarck.
d. Maximilien Robespierre.
3. What system-level factor increased the level of violence in war?
a. Spreading nationalism among political leaders.
b. The triumph of fascism and Nazism in Italy and Germany respectively.
c. The Bolshevik Revolution.
4. What is unique about weapons of mass destruction?
a. They make it possible, for the first time, to destroy cities
b. They can be used to target innocent civilians.
c. They permit the milling of more enemy soldiers than ever before.
d. They are inherent indiscriminate.
5. Which of the following most closely resembles the ideas of Karl Maria von Clausewitz?
a. War is the "means" and politics the "end."
b. War and politics are independent of each other.
c. Military necessity should determine policy.
d. War is the "end" and politics the "means."
6. What did Clausewitz fear would raise the level of violence in warfare?
a. Europe's reaction to the French Revolution.
b. Napoléon's invasion of Russia.
7. What was the meaning of "victory" for Clausewitz?
a. The surrender of the enemy's army.
b. Realization of the political objectives that gave rise to the war in the first place.
c. Occupation of the enemy's capital city.
d. Achieving the political aims that had evolved in the course of the war.
8. Which of the following represented what Clausewitz feared and counseled against?
a. The generals in World War I dictating the timing of military mobilization.
b. Hitler's decision to invade Poland in 1939?
c. Chamberlain's effort to appease Hitler before World War II.
d. The strategy of mutual assured destruction during the Cold War.
9. Which of the following was not a consequence of industrialization?
a. It increased the production and standardization of armaments.
b. It greatly increased the employment of women outside the home.
c. It made factories legitimate targets of enemy attack.
d. It made the home front as important to the war effort as
armies in the field.
10. What do we call a strategy that seeks to erode an enemy's army by constant attack?
11. In what war was the impact of industrialization first evident?
a. The Crimean War.
b. World War I.
c. The American Civil War.d. The Franco-Prussian War
23. In planning for World War I, what wars did most general think would provide the best model for what would happen?
a. The Napoléonic Wars.
b. The Russo-Japanese and American Civil War.
c. The Austro-Prussian and Franco Prussian Wars.
d. The Crimean and Boer Wars.
12. To what school of theory does Clausewitz belong?
c. Constructivism.d. Marxism
13. Following its defeat of Poland in 1939, what was Nazi Germany's next conquest?
d. The Netherlands.
14. After the defeat of France, from where did the British army have to retreat in order to get home?
a. Le Havre.
c. Boulogne.d. Dunkirk
15. What was the Bitz?
a. Germany's invasion of Russia in 1941.
b. German bombing of Britain in 1940-41.
c. The US use of nuclear weapons against Japan in 1945.
d. The Soviet use of tanks in the Battle of Kursk in 1943.
16. Who commanded America's island-hopping campaign against Japan in World War II?
a. Douglas MacArthur.
b. George Patton.
c. Chester Nimitz.d. Ernest King.
17. Who were the World War II kamikaze?
a. Japanese pilots who committed suicide.
b. Russian partisans behind German lines.
c. British commandos landing in Normandy on D-Day.d. The bodyguards protecting Chiang Kai-shek
18. What technological innovation that made it possible to have longer and larger wars was invented by a French chef in 1795?
19. What was invented by the American Joseph Gliddens that proved very important in World War I?
a. The machine gun.
b. Smokeless powder.
c. The submarine.
d. Barbed wire.
20. What was invented by the American Hiram Maxim that proved very important in World War I?
a. The machine gun.
b. Smokeless powder.
c. The submarine.d. Barbed wire
21. What Chinese innovation enabled mounted warriors to use hand-held weapons more effectively than ever before?
b. The saddle.
22. What general was among the first to recognize the possibilities of a war of attrition in an industrialized world?
a. Douglas Haig.
b. Ulysses S. Grant.
c. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson.d. Joseph Joffre
24. What did French strategists believe would determine the outcome of World War I?
b. Defensive fortifications.
d. The moral dimension.
25. What was Germany's military plan for World War I called?
26. What did most military leaders in 1914 think would be the decisive factor in World War I?
a. The production of artillery shells.
b. The speed of military mobilization.
c. The size of navies.
d. The interdiction of enemy supplies.
27. Which of the following weapons used in World War I was not used in World War II?
c. Poison gas.
28. What German policy, more than any other, caused America to enter World War I?
a. The invasion of neutral Belgium.
b. Unrestricted submarine warfare.
c. The use of Zeppelins to bomb Great Britain.
d. The refusal to elaborate war aims
29. What British vessel, sunk in 1915 with the loss of many American lives, produced revulsion against Germany in the United States?
30. What town, bombed by German aircraft, became the subject of a painting by Pablo Picasso?
31. In preparing for World War II, what was the French response to the dominance of defensive over offensive war in World War I?
a. A line of fortification from Switzerland to Belgium.
b. The concentration of tanks in special units.
c. A strategy combining tanks and tactical aircraft.
d. The production of large strategic bombers.
32. What did Billy Mitchell try to show military planners during the period between World Wars I and II?
a. Cities could not be defended from air attack.
b. Mobile tank forces promised rapid victory.
c. Strategic bombing of enemy industries could determine a war's outcome.
d. Battleships were vulnerable to air attack.
33. On what city was the second atomic bomb dropped?
35. What is the great advantage of "smart" weapons?
36. In what war did the United States introduce the use of precision-guided weapons?
a. The Persian Gulf War.
b. The Kosovo War.
c. The invasion of Afghanistan.
d. The invasion of Iraq.
37. What is at the heart of the current American strategy utilizing high technology in military affairs?
a. Enhanced destructive capability.
b. Quality and quantity of information.
c. Rapid reaction time to enemy attacks.d. Ability to withstand an enemy attack and retaliate afterwards
38. What do we call computers attacking other computers in warfare?
39. What terrorist group pioneered the use of suicide bombers?
a. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
b. Lebanon's Hezbollah.
c. Al Qaeda.d. Hamas
40. Which of the following is not characteristic of contemporary terrorists?
a. They seek to discriminate between innocent civilians and officials in countries that they attack.
b. Many are prepared to commit suicide for their cause.
c. They make increasing use of modern technologies like the Internet.
d. Their level of fanaticism is higher than that of earlier terrorists.
41. Which of the following countries is not a failed or failing state that is a haven for terrorists?
42. Which of the following is not a condition associated with failed states?
a. Demographic pressures.
b. Vengeance-seeking groups.
c. Absolute poverty.
d. The collapse of public services.
43. What was the "Gulag"?
a. The system of Soviet prison camps.
b. A code name used by Germany's Red Army Faction.
c. The name of a terrorist group seeking Basque independence from Spain.
d. .A Palestinian terrorist group that specialized in kidnapping Westerners.
44. What country collapsed after the overthrow of President Samuel Doe and was the scene of continuous violence between 1989 and 1996?
c. Zimbabwe.d. Liberia.
45. What type of terrorists encouraged assassinating political leaders, which they referred to as "propaganda of the deed"?
a. Communist revolutionaries.
b. French revolutionaries.
c. Muslim militants.
46. What country in the Western Hemisphere is a failed state?
47. In what country did Muslims in Aceh as well as inhabitants of East Timor demand independence?
d. Sri Lanka.
48. Which of the following is a state-level explanation for intrastate war?
a. Ethnic hatred.
b. Great power intervention.
c. Relative poverty compared to other countries.
d. Power-hungry, corrupt, and greedy leaders.
49. What is meant by the "resource curse"?
a. Foreign corporations try to exploit resource-rich countries.
b. Natural resources make a country attractive to greedy foreign investors.
c. Foreigners are likely to intervene in countries with significant natural resources.
d. Great resource wealth brings about corruption on the part of leaders and great economic inequality among citizens.
50. Which of the following is an effective way of managing and ending civil wars?
a. Preventing foreign intervention.
b. Encouraging adversaries to live in the same communities and thereby get to know one another.
c. Dividing political power among combatants.
d. Allowing enemies to keep separate militias for their own security.
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