Political Science: Chapter 1 Politics: who gets what, when, and how; a process of determining how power and resources are distributed in a society without recourse to violence if possible, but with violence if you must. ?War is the continuation of politics by other means.? Van Clausewitz Power: The ability to get other to do what you want. What is politics? The process to decide which members of society get benefits or privelages and which do not. Who gets benefits and who pays the cost. Politics arrange our lives into some kind of social order. How power is managed must be legitimate or there will be violence. Government: a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people. It has the ultimate authority within society. Expected to have a monopoly or legitimate coercion and violence Rules: Directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity. The ?HOW? of who gets what and how. Institutions: Organizations in which government power is exercised. The ?WHERE? of political struggle. ?The institution of government is necessary because in the absence of such authority or order, human life is ?solitary, cold, nasty, brutish, and short.? (Hobbes) Purpose of Government: To provide peace (Preamble) Form a more perfect union Establish justice Ensure domestic tranquility Provide for common defense Promote the general welfare Secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity. Economics: production and distribution of a society?s material resources and services. Both politics and economics focus on distribution of society?s resources. Economics ( private. Politics ( public. Capitalism: an economic system in which the market determines production, distribution, and price decisions and property is privately owned. Regulated Capitalism has government procedural guarantees, whereas laissez faire capitalism doesn?t. Socialist Economy: an economic system in which the state determines production, distribution, and price decisions and property is government owned. Few nations still claim allegiance to socialism. Social Democracy is a hybrid (blend) between capitalism and socialism. ** See Figure 1.1 in book (page 9) Adam Smith: one of the foremost developers of capitalist economic theory. Karl Marx: the principal philosopher of socialist economics Authoritarian Systems: state holds all power. Several Types: Monarchy: government power vested in a king or queen (Saudi Arabia) Theocracy: government claims to draw its power from divine or religious authority (Iran) Facist: policy is made for the ultimate glory of the state (Nazi Germany) Oligarchy: rule by small group of elites Totalitarian Government: system in which absolute control is exercised over every aspect of life (North Korea) Non-authoritarian Systems: ultimate power rests with the individuals to make decisions concerning their lives. Types: Anarchy: absence of government and laws Democracy: a less extreme form of non-authoritarian government. Government that vests power in the people. Based on popular sovereignty. Popular Sovereignty: the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power. Greek origins (ancient ATHENS) ?demos?- the people ?kratos?- authority/rule See Figure 1.2 & 1.3 Theories of Democracy: Elite Democracy: limits the citizens? role to choosing among competing leaders. Pluralist Democracy: citizen membership in groups is the key to political power. (unions or interest groups) Participatory Democracy: citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives. The Role of the People: Authoritarian Systems: individuals are subjects of state government. Subjects: individuals who are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights. Democratic Systems: people are citizens. Citizens: members of a political community having both rights and responsibilities, which include obeying laws, paying taxes, owning businesses, participating? Citizens vs. Subjects: Citizens: Produce government Participate in public affairs Responsible for keeping government accountable. Subjects: Decline government Not obliged to participate in public affairs Not responsible for keeping government accountable Origins of American Democracy: Ancient Greek experience: Athenian democracy. Politics in the middle ages: The divine right of kings: The principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from God. Protestant Reformation: (1500s) Break from Roman Catholic church Emphasized that individuals could have direct access to God and Salvation by faith. Democratization of Faith- ?priesthood of all believers? Martin Luther and John Calvin Enlightenment theories discredited the divine right of kings. American colonists were influenced profoundly by the British norms of governance after a long political struggle for power. Power of government is limited Citizens have rights against the state that cannot be infringed Executive authority must coexist with popular authority. The ?Tree of Liberty? was transplanted from England. Enlightenment thought and the birth of liberalism. Primacy of the individual Core concepts of liberalism Rational self-interest; consent; rights; limited government; liberty; equality Father of modern liberalism- Thomas Hobbes (1651) Leviathon (book) State of Nature: ?war of all against all? No external authority to man To achieve self-preservation, individuals consent to give up their right to decide all matters as they wish. By act of consent, they create an absolute state to provide personal security. John Locke (1690) Second Treatsie on governemt By nature all men had natural rights to life, liberty, and estate Man?s rationality led him in the state of nature, to behave sociably. The self interest of some led them to violate the natural rights of others To protect natural rights? men consented to create government. If government violates these rights, the people retain their right to revolt. Social Contract Theory: the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others. For authority to be legitimate, citizens must consent to it. Hobbes- government not due to divine right; instead people agree to be governed for protection. Locke- people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of other rights by the government. Founders of Social Contract Theory: Hobbes and Locke What is a ?Republic?? A government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people Designed to work in extended nations where direct democracy is not practical To ?cool the passions? of the people Citizenship in America: John Madison feared ?pure democracy? because people may create ?factions? Faction: groups that might pursue only their self-interest. Madison preferred a republic Extended republic would ameliorate the problem of faction. See Federalist #10 Madison did not trust average Americans to act beyond their own interests. Madison?s view contrasted with the idea of ?Republican Virtue? (Citizens can put interests of community ahead of their own.) American citizenship today illustrates elements of both views of citizenship Madison: our 4th president, coauthor of The Federalist, and democratic theorist. Democratic Republic: A limited government in which public policies are made, on a majority basis, by representatives subject to effective popular control at periodic elections, which are conducted on the principles of political equality and under conditions of political freedom. Limited government based on the consent of the governed. Indirect rule by the people through representative institutions Designed to produce democratic-competence Why study government and politics?: Individuals and the people as a whole neglect it at their risk! Government is growing in size and influence in human affairs Government can be beneficial harmful to individual self-interests America is a democratic republic- A form of government with special requirements The government is based on the consent of the governed; it belongs to the people. It is a citizen?s obligation to know about, be attentive to, and participate in public affair The Constitution creates a democratic republic that requires citizens not subjects to work properly. The First Amendment assures individuals & groups the tools essential to citizenship If we choose not to be informed and involved, we create a vacuum others will fill. IN A NUTSHELL: The form of government created by the American Constitution cannot function properly without popular knowledge about, attention to, and participation in public affairs. Vocabulary: Politics: who gets what, when, and how; a process of determining how power and resources are distributed in a society without recourse to violence. Power: the ability to get other people to do what you want. Resources: assets and advantages that help us to achieve a desired end. Social Order: the way we organize and live our collective lives. Legitimate: accepted as ?right? or proper Government: a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people. Authority: power that is recognized as legitimate Rules: directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity. Institutions: organizations in which governmental power is exercised. Economics: production and distribution of a society?s material resources and services. Capitalist Economy: an economic system in which the market determines production, distribution, and price decisions and property is privately owned Laissez Faire Capitalism: an economic system in which the market makes all decisions and the government plays no role. Regulated Capitalism: a market system in which the government intervenes to protect rights and make procedural guarantees. Procedural Guarantees: government assurance that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly, with no promise of particular outcomes. Socialist Economy: an economic system in which the state determines production, distribution, and price decisions and property is government owned. Substantive Guarantees: government assurance of particular outcomes or results. Social Democracy: a hybrid system combining a capitalist economy and a government that supports equality. Authoritarian Governments: systems in which the state holds all power over the social order Monarchy: an authoritarian government with power vested in a king or queen. Theocracy: an authoritarian government that claims to draw its power from divine or religious authority Facist Government: an authoritarian government in which policy is made for the ultimate glory of the state. Oligarchy: rule by a small group of elites Totalitarian Government: a system in which absolute power is exercised over every aspect of life. Authoritarian Capitalism: a system in which the state allows people economic freedom, but maintains stringent social regulations to limit non-economic behavior. Anarchy: the absence of government and laws. Democracy: government that vests power in the people Popular Sovereignty: the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power. Elite Democracy: a theory of democracy that limites the citizens? role to choosing among competing leaders. Pluralist Democracy: a theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power. Participatory Democracy: a theory of democracy that holds that citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives. Advanced Industrial Democracy: a system in which a democratic government allows citizens a considerable amount of personal freedom and maintains a free-market (though still usually regulated) economy. Communist Democracy: a utopian system in which property is communally owned and all decisions are made democratically. Subjects: individuals who are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights. Citizens: members of a political community having both rights and responsibilities. Divine Right of Kings: the principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from God. Protestant Reformation: the break from the Roman Catholic Church in the 1500s by those who believed in direct access to God and salvation by faith. Enlightenment: a philosophical movement (1600s-1700s) that emphasizied human reason, scientific examination, and industrial progress. Social Contract: the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others. Republic: a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people. Critical Thinking: analysis and evaluation of ideas and arguments based on reason and evidence. Analysis: understanding how something works by breaking it down into its component parts. Evaluation: assessing how well something works or performs according to a particular standard or yardstick. PAGE 1
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