Policy Evaluation CREATEDATE 3/26/09 1:01 PM Policy Evaluation Outline Functions of Evaluations Legal Requirements and Problems Evaluation Methods and Problems Technical Issues Ethical Issues Getting Evaluations Used ? In A Positive Sense Policy Evaluation Functions Functions of Evaluations: Perspectives Evaluators: Do it Right; Comprehensive; Personal Politicians: Accountability; Exposure; Ammunition Public: Do They Care? Generally Somewhat, But Media? Policy Evaluation Legal Issues Legal Requirements & Problems Increasing Mandate Important to Specify Powers Statutes and Administrative Rules Potential Problems Data acquisition ? withheld Freedom of Information Acts ? Confidentiality Open Records Laws Policy Evaluation Methods Evaluation Methods Planning Scope: Target Populations? Treatment and Cost-Benefit, or just Treatment? Time Frame, Duration? ?Black Box? or not? Goals of the Evaluation: What Do We Evaluate? Time Related Issues: Forms of Goals Research Designs Policy Evaluation Methods (Cont.) Indicators and Measurement Quantitative vs. Qualitative Multiple Indicators Analysis Statistics: Descriptive to Complex Discussion Reporting Suggestions Policy Evaluation ? Technical Issues Technical Problems and Issues Determining Causality Measurement of the Treatment Effect Selection Bias: E.G. Creaming or Inverse Creaming Radomization? Time Policy Evaluation ? Ethical Issues Ethical Issues: Three Senses Ethics as Criteria for Judging Outcomes E.G. Public Interest, Freedom, Equality ?Inherently Ethical? Issues E.G. Abortion, Stem Cells, Embryonic Cloning Ethics Involved in Evaluation E.G. Confidentiality of subjects and organizations E.G. Induced Randomization E.G. Withholding Treatment Policy Evaluation ? Getting Them Used Getting Evaluations Used ? Positively Natural Fears and Risk Aversion for Politicians and Agencies Do you consult over results? Yes, but ultimate say must be the evaluator Do you provide prior notification? Yes, of anything harmful Report Writing ? Same Rules of Policy Analysis Proper Media Exposure DO NOT RELEASE THINGS PREMATURELY Budget Policy-Outline Huge Topic ? Whole Course on Budget & Taxes Budget Institutions Historical Development Budget Process ? Abbreviated. Budget Deficits What to Do? Summary Budget Institutions Legislative Side Budget Committees Appropriations Committees Support Staffs ? Crucial (Great Entry Jobs) Executive Branch President/White House Staff/CEA OMB Agency Budget Offices Historical Development Constitutional Provisions Taxing Powers to the House of Representatives Historical Development: Wars and Crises Civil War: Congress Tries to Recoup Powers 1867 Appropriations Committees Created. World War I: Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 Required Presidential Budget ? Not in the Constitution Established General Accounting Office (GAO) Created a Budget Bureau ? located in Treasury. Vietnam War: Budget Reform and Impoundment Act of 1974 Set Up modern System Impoundments Immediate Problem (By Nixon) Established Budget Committees Required Comprehensive Look At the Budget Required Five Year Projections Modern Budget System Presidential Budget ? Agencies/OMB To Congress: Budget Committees Budget ?Resolution? Assigned to Appropriation Committees Appropriation Committees Act ?Reconciliation? Sequester Order If Needed ? Done By 9/30 What Has Really Happened? Budget Roller Coaster 1980s ? With Tax cuts and Recession, Enormous Budget Deficits Congress Fights Back ? Congress ?Learned? - Picked the Right Approaches By Trial and Error Clinton: Increased Taxes 1993, 1997 Result ? Projected Surplus of $2.2 Trillion 10 Yrs Then Bush Administration: Enormous Tax Cut; 9/11; Iraq. $300-$400 billion annual deficits ; Obama Later Summary Budgeting is Crucial ? Programs Must Be Funded Annually; A Major Policy Tool Agencies Use Budgets to Allocate Between Programs ? Presidential Authority is Extensive Wars and Crises Have Shaped and Increased Those Powers Tax and Economic Policy Outline Institutions Process Basics: Forms of Taxation ?Standard Practice? Economic Policy Keynesian Monetary Supply Side Obama?s Problems Tax Institutions Legislative Side: House: Ways and Means Senate Finance Joint Committee on Taxation Staffs Again Important Executive Side: President/WH/CEO ? Varies With Presidential Style IRS Treasury/Office of Tax Analysis Courts Special Tax Court Since 1926 Can Carry Cases Over to Federal Court Process Tax Policy Varies Widely ? Wars & Crises or Normal Normal: Temporal, Incremental Use to be separate from the budget, but now part of it ? Often in Omnibus Bills Huge Numbers of Tax Loopholes ? ?Tax Expenditures? Wars & Crises: Continuous, almost desperate Tax Policy ? Basics Types of Taxes ? Federal: Individual Income Tax ? April 15th Corporate Income Tax Payroll (Social Security) Tax Customs and Excise Taxes ? Difference? E.G.s? State & Local Income Taxes ? Some Both ? Mostly State Sales Taxes ? Mostly State, With County Add-on Property Taxes ? Mostly Local Now Fees and Excise Taxes ? Both State and Local Taxation: Standard Process Highly Incremental-Remember the Theory? Fits Well With the Structure of Most Taxes: They Have a Lot ?Levers? that can be Tweaked Rates, Numbers of Brackets, Range of Brackets, and 1000s of Special Provisions (or Loopholes) Benefiting Every Imaginable Constituency The Results ? A Tax Code So Complex and Full of Special Privileges That No One Can Understand It. Possible Reforms & Changes Flat Tax: Get Rid of Many of the Exceptions and Apply One Single Rate Terrible Idea that is Politically Impossible Consumption Tax: I = C + S, Only Tax C. Coming in through the backdoor: 401k, IRAs Value-Added Tax: How Does It Work? Central in Many Countries, Unlikely Here. Economic Policy Classic Goals to Control: Inflation, Unemployment Institutions: Federal Reserve Board Seven Member, Independent Board Chair Alan Greenspan 1987 ? 2006; Ben Bernanke Since Treasury Congress Economic Policy: Theories Keynesian Policy: Manipulate Consumption Vary Spending; Vary Taxes Monetary Policy: Manipulate the Money Supply. How? Table 7-2, p. 192 Sell Securities Change Rediscount Rate Change the Reserve Requirements Supply-Side Theory: Manipulate Investment (Reagan Era) How? Primarily Using the Tax System Cut Taxes for High Income People and Corporations to spur them to invest. Reality of All of These: Monetary Policy Works Best: Independent and Timely Budget and Tax Politics as ?Usual? Increasing Spending & Pressure to Reduce Taxes Consequences Particularized Benefits & Tax ?Expenditures? Deficits Poses the Large Question? Why Does This Happen? Why All the Narrow Benefits for a Few People? Why Does Majority Rule Not Work Politics as ?Unusual?: Obama?s Problems both Old and New Inherited Bubble(S): Old: 1920?s Stock Market Bubble New: Simultaneous Stock and Real Estate Bubbles Bank Crisis Old: Early 1990?s; S & L Crisis of 1980?s New: Global Crisis Health Policy Outline and Introduction Background Outline: Traditional Problems Access Cost Quality Programs: Federal; State; Insurance Basic Reform Strategies Obama Agenda Non-Traditional: Larger Philosophic First Some Background Traditional Approach: Health insurance Through Employer; Private Doctors Programs: Veterans ? Civil War Medicare (1965) Medicaid (1965) Delivery: Fee for Service; HMOs; Managed Care Access Who Has It? What Demographics Matter? Geographic Differences Issues: Fundamental Right? What Services? How Much Are We Willing to Spend? Who Should Decide? Access (cont) What to Do? National Health Insurance? A Movement that direction completely destroyed in 1993 Fix the ?uninsured? problem ? 41 million (14.6%) in 2002, Possible ? Basics At Least Universal Coverage With Rationing Health Savings Accounts (later) Cost Highest in the World. In 2000, $1000/Person higher Than Next Highest. Grown from 8.8% of GDP in 1980 To 13.2% in 2000, projected to 17% in 2011. Hospitals (46%), Drugs (24%), Doctors (18%) Highest Categories (Table 10.8, p.252 in Peter?s) Private Insurance and Medicare and Medicaid 70% Combined What to Do? Shift to ?Managed Care? Cost Driven Originally HMOs (form of Managed Care) were preventive health ? here in Madison But Cost Containment Forced Most costs into third party payers (government; insurance companies); Control the costs actually paid, not billed Ration Services to a Degree ? E.G. Cosmetic Surgery; Limits on Mental Health, Drug and Alcohol Treatment, etc. But Not Working Well - More Later. Quality Much Harder to Quantify; Harder to Analyze Many Argue Best in the World (for those who have it); Others Disagree Infant Mortality High, e.g. (but poverty?) Life Expectancy up, but not highest Recent: Error Rates (44-88k deaths in 1999) ? If only 44k, 8th cause of death What to Do? Maybe more lawyers to sue more doctors! Simply Better Management of Hospitals and clinics Better Training - Not necessarily doctors, but much lower levels - LPNs, Nurses Aides Health Programs Federal Programs Medicare 1965 Three Parts: A (Everyone) ? Hospitalization Part B: (Voluntary -95% do it) ? Physician Services, diagnostic, hospitalization out services (Gov. 75%) Part D: Drugs Co-Pays and deductibles everywhere A lot of Reform Proposals Medicaid ? 1965 Also Health Care for the poor (44 million 2002): TANF, SSI recipients (poor old; disabled; blind) State administered, matching program Covers hospitalization, physicians, diagnostics, outpatient services ? According to a schedule which many providers say does not cover costs = refusals Federal government pays about half; states half; Changes in many states in the 1990s. Costs escalating almost out of control ? state deficits Veterans Programs and hospitals; Military too State Programs Children?s Health Insurance Program (Chips) Mental Health Programs and Hospitals State Hospitals (not many in WI) Private Insurance Through Employers ? Huge Issue in the Future; Will they be there? Or cafeteria benefits? Basic Reform Strategies Cutting Across Problems Huge National Health Insurance or Government Delivery? (Radical Comprehensive Approaches) Some say we already have it with Medicare and Medicaid ? just solve the uninsured problem Serious opposition from many quarters Clinton Problems Tinkering With the Present System (Incremental Changes) Market Approaches ? Health Savings Accounts Obama Agenda Guaranteed Insurance Eligibility National Health Insurance Exchange Tax Credits for Families and Small Business Large Business Play or Pay Required Coverage of All Children Expansion of Medicaid and SCHIPS Income Security Outline Low Income Security Programs Today The Major Programs History of AFDC/TANF (Welfare Programs) Impacts of 1996 Welfare Reforms Social Security Clarify the Law: History Clarify the Law: How it Works Understanding the ?Crisis? Reform Proposals & Analysis Major Income Supporting Programs Size: Medicaid (Dwarfs All in $) TANF ( New welfare) - Modest Per Capita Costs Childcare & Head Start Average Subsidy is for One Child History of AFDC/TANF Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Origin ? 1935 Social Security Act Original Theory: Widows & Children Subsidy State Laws Vary ? Lack of Work Incentives Local Administration 1970s - Dissatisfaction Grows 1980s/1990s - State Reforms Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Origin: 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) Grew Out of State Programs Legislative History ? Comparisons to AFDC Methods of Studying Effects of TANF Reform Simple Time Series Times Series with Comparison Groups State Difference Studies Prior and Post Randomized Design Experimental Studies First an Overall Look Outline Clarifying the Law: History Clarifying the Law: How it Works Understanding the ?Crisis? Reform Proposals and Analysis Clarifying the Law: History A Child of the Depression Not an Annuity, Although it Looks Like One Floating Fund, ?Pay-AS-You-Go? Court Challenge - Supreme Court Ruled in Favor in 1937. Funding: Government Securities Many Amendments over the Years ? Expanded Coverage, Benefits, Taxes. Clarifying the Law: How it Works Taxes: On both Employee and Employer Covers All Social Security Programs (OASI, Unemployment, Disability, Medicare) Capped at about $100,000 Except for Medicare Historically It has gone up ? But last major increase in 1982. Benefits: Based on ?Quarters? and Wages ? Set Amount Meant to Provide Basic Security for All Therefore, favors the poor, and non-working spouses Age of Retirement: Early at 62; Regular 65 (to go up to 67); or later (more money) Married Couples Separate Amounts ? But Survivors Advantage Over Singles COLAs: Annual increase based on increase in ?average wages? ? higher than CPI Results: Successful in lifting people out of poverty Married couples do well if one non-working That is changing as more women work, many now better if they were two singles Still for about 1/3 OASI is sole source of income ? many of them below the poverty line. Understanding the ?Crisis? Two Critical Points When the ?fund? goes red (2017-18) When the fund is out of money and benefits cannot be paid (2041??) So Hardly An Emergency Medicare and Medicaid Much More Pressing Potential Reforms Retaining the Existing System Taxes: Increase either or both; Raise Cap Benefits: Whole Matrix of Possibilities Retirement Age: Early 65, Regular 70? Benefit Formula: Reduce; spousal benefit; survivor benefits COLA: Simply shift to CPI Never goes Red. Why? Compounding Effect Change the Structure: Focus on Privatization Partial Privatization (50%, phased in) Two Forms: Social Security Administration Manages Private Funds ? I.E. Drop Government Securities Requirement and Add Equities to the Fund Individuals Have Private Accounts They Manage Professor Witte?s Analysis Social Security Administration Invests Possible Advantages: Stocks do better than bonds in almost every year since 1929 ? Greater Return, Larger Fund Benefits Could Grow With Economy, Not With Prime Rate (Which Is Often Kept Low) Possible Disadvantages Risk: Could Lose, Economy Could Slow Down How the devil do you invest so much without distorting the markets Private, Individual Accounts Advantages: Possible Return Is Greater People Have an Individual Stake in the Country and the Economy Disadvantages Will it accomplish or threaten the basic idea ? to provide a secure, minimal retirement for all? I Think Yes, And Not Necessary. Why? Why Is Added Potential Return Not Necessary? Because Vested Pensions are a thing of the past and younger workers will all have individual retirement accounts (401k;403b, etc.) if they have anything. Thus they will already have a stake in the ?market? Social Security is needed as a ?rock? to offset the risks inherent in the other pensions Or it is needed to insure some money if no private pensions at all. So This is a portfolio diversification strategy Summary We should explore the idea of privatization of some of the fund Individual Accounts Seem Way Off Base But Oh would banks and mutual funds love either option, but especially individual accounts However, I Still Think that Social Security is a perfect example of incrementalism. Bush failure to sell privatization was predictable ? ?The Rail of Politics Holds.? Outline A. Definitions ? B. Environmental Policies ? Pollution, Toxic Waste, Environmental Justice C. Natural Resources ? Parks & Land Conservation, Wilderness Areas, Species D. Energy Policies ? Fossil Fuels v. Nuclear E. Coming Together ? global Warming and Sustainable Development F. Politics in the U.S. Definitions Hard to Define Individual Policy Areas Some Issues are Old ? Parks; Land Use Many are Post-WWII ? 1964- 76 Some Recent ? Global Warming; Environmental Justice Environmental Policies General Acts and Policies 1969 ? Environmental Protection Act Environmental Impact Statements 1970 ? Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency April 22, 1970 ? Earth Day Senator Gaylord Nelson (D-WI) An enormous influence on the outpouring of legislation defining environmental policy in the US and the world. Air Pollution ? 1970 Clean Air Act Air Quality Standards ? Precise as to gases Emission Standards for Vehicles Standards for ?point source? pollution Amendments ? Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) standards ? auto = 27.5 miles/gal.; light trucks = 20.7 miles/gal. Results Water Pollution ? 1972 Clean Water Act Water Quality Ban on Toxic Substances in Navigable Waterways Water Treatment standards and grants Goal: Safe Swimming and Fishing Numerous Amendments ? Incremental Changes Results Toxic Substances ? 1976 Resources Conservation and Recovery Act Basic law to cover solid wastes ? land fills; dumps 1976 Toxic Substance Control Act Commercial Chemicals 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) Love?s Canal Results ? Environmental Justice ? Latest Issue Differential Impact Based on Income and Race Examples Brown Fields Lead Exposure Air Pollution A Surprise? Rich Don?t Live in Bad Environments Positive Effect: Targeting Policies and Programs Natural Resources Policy Land Use ? National Expansion ? Large Tracts to Federal Government Used to Induce Expansion of Country - By Whites Creation of National Presence 1892 ? Yellowstone ? First National Park. Who? 1905 National Forest Service 1916 National Park Service Also Rich Folks ? Rockefeller ? Grand Tetons 1964 Wilderness Protection Act 1968 Natural Wild and Scenic Rivers Act They changed the equation Very limited access- under conditions Restricted development, preserving nature Where Do We Have Some? 1973 Endangered Species Act Lists of species indifferent categories ? As in other acts, very specific Initially, and over time some very controversial cases: snail darter (TN); spotted owl (OR) But mostly quiet successes ? Bald Eagle; Whooping Craned; Condors; Timber Wolves; Cougars Energy Policies We Don?t Have A Comprehensive Policy Battleground ? Fossil Fuels Run Out? Yes! But When? Government Interventions ? Not Always Successful ? Carter and Oil Shale But Other Related Issues ? Pollution Dependence on Oil Countries Issues: Gas tax to gas at $4.00 per gallon? Nuclear Power? Coming Together Global Warming ? Green House Gases ? Primarily CO2 from carbon fuels. Kyoto Protocols China? Long-Term Effects ? Not Good Long Cycles Sustainable Development Not as Clear as Global Warming Development within current resources ? forests, water, minerals, fuel supplies, etc. E.G. Ethanol Production Cheaper? Better Environmentally? Or Farm Payoff? E.G. Wind Power ? Same questions Effects for Developed and Under-developed countries? Terrorism? Power Plants? Water Supplies? Ambient Spread Gases? Food Chain? Environmental Policies Players ? Environment AGAINST ? Big Business, but also small businesses, ranchers and farmers ? they add up FOR ? Environmentalists and conservationists, but also those who fish, hunt, and camp; and those who dislike things like smog and polluted water Highly Partisan Party Voting Records Constantly Extreme Republican Against; Democrats For Why? Direct Regulation ? Harsh Form:? Explicit Standards; Enforced; Sanctions Costs of Compliance High; Leads to Litigation Uncertainty Concerning Risk New Directions CAP and TRADE: In Emissions Reductions How Does It Work? [See Figure: Ger/Sweden] Cap is RReg; R*is the reduction at the trade price, P. Germany much better than Sweden. Both Produce to their respective R* with Germany exceeding required levels; Sweden falling short. But Sweden Buys Emission Reductions from Germany and Both Make Money ? Triangles. Other New Directions Collaborative Decision Making Includes industry, government, public, interest groups ? Avoid litigation and conflict Used in Europe: German and The Netherlands Not as successful in WI ? Green Tier Legislation Never Implemented Very Extensively Energy Politics Less Clear Cut ? Can Be Business Sector Against Business Sector ? e.g. Oil Against Agriculture But: Republicans Usually for Expansion ? E.G. Alaskan Preserves; Off-shore Drilling Democrats Usually for Sustainable The ?Green Movement? May be Changing This ? considerable business support Outline Will Stick to K-12 Outline Background ? Structure of American Education Reforms ? Types, History, Repetition No Child Left Behind Educational Choice The Future ? Obama? Radically Different? Background Critical Structural Characteristics Variance ? Vast Differences Inequalities State and Local Control ? Changing? Variance ? In Just About Everything First ?The Image? ? Especially from Outsiders Inner-City Horror Show Poor, Racial Minorities, and Failing Miserably Actually, The Images Must be of Vast Differences Districts and School Sizes Location Geographic Composition Students Expenditures And now With Charter Schools and other Schools of Choice ? Approaches to Learning And Now With No Child Left Behind ? What We Should Learn Outcomes Inequality Outcomes Vary ? Unfortunately Predictably Achievement Measures: Standardized Tests Attainment ? HS Graduation; College Predicted by Race: Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans Do Worse Predicted by Income: Kids on Free Lunch do Worse Predicted by Gender: Boys Do Worse And, Excepting Gender, They Have for A Long Time But, and this should help, We Know Locations State and Local Control Uniquely American Legal Authority With States and School Districts Funding: 7% From Feds; Rest 50/50 State and Local District (state share growing) Cultural: Belief That Local Districts Know Best; Know What Their Children Should Learn, and Not Learn; and How Much They Want to Spend Reforms Reforms in Waves Teacher Instruction Standard/?Old? System Participatory Approaches Reality-Based Instruction Curriculum Academic Traditional Practical/Real (But Not Vocational) Governance/Authority Traditional Centralized/Professional ? School Admin/Boards Increasing State Role But still? when the door closes- its teachers! Decentralized Community Schools; Huge systems (NY) More Recent: Site-Based; Vouchers; Charters Why So Many Reforms? Usual Explanations: Rationalistic Failures Cycle Theories Another Approach Inherent Value Contradictions Excellence For All Common Education For All Common Values For All Political Backlash ? High Expectations Dashed No Child Left Behind Theoretically Based on Five Components Standards (High) Curriculum Aligned With Standards Assessment of Performance Consequences for Failing Schools Teacher Quality Standards Detailed, By Subject and Grade Formal, Written Curriculum Fit to Standards ? Roadmap May Require: Radical Changes; New Texts; New Pedagogies; Or May Reflect What Is Currently Happened Assessment Standardized Tests: Math, Reading, and Science Grades 3-8, one HS Grade Probably ?Criteria Referenced? Tests Reporting: Whole School; Subgroups (Race; Free-lunch; Exceptional Education; ESL Participation: 95% Rule, School and Subgroups Requirement: By 2012 ? 100% ?Proficient? No Child Left Behind (Cont) Consequences: Severe School-Level, but Could Be District As Well Fails Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) State Defined: % Proficient; 95% Rule ?School in Need of Progress Two Years: Students Have Option of Another Public School (Bush wanted private also): Improvement Plan Three Years: Above + Exceptional Services; Possible Restructuring Four Years: Above + District Takeover Fifth Year: Possible State Takeover Teacher Quality By 2005-06 ?A Qualified Teacher in Every Classroom? Defined as: Certified; BA; and ?demonstrated content knowledge in core subjects taught? Outcry Beginning Last Year: Rural Exception Granted Some States operating with 15-20% Uncertified or under ?Emergency Certification? Why? Class Siz Reduction, Teacher Shortage Analysis and Evaluation Some Thinking Points Who Decides Standards? How Detailed? What Included? Testing Problems ? Criteria Referenced Tests? Ever Increasing Proficiency? 100% Proficient? Gaming? Consequences ? Right Approach? Students the Key What Motivates Them on Testing? Teacher Quality: Long-term Process; Short-term Goals? Will it Lead to Waffling and Gaming? Educational Choice History of Choice Public School Only Standard Practice: Residential Assignment to Schools that are mostly similar Began with ?magnet schools? 100 years ago; they expanded in the 1970?s and 1980?s to aid integration Open Enrollment (MN/1986) ? Cross District Lines Charter Schools (MN/1991) Private School Choice Private Schools: About 12% of students ? similar last 75 years 85% Religious ? Half of those Catholic Very Little Regulation or Public Support Because of First Amendment to the US Constitution; and State Constitutional Prohibitions First Tuition Tax Credits (MN/1967) ? Supported in Mueller v Allen (1983) Vouchers (WI ? Milwaukee/1990) ? Supported in Cleveland Case, Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002) Does Choice Lead to Greater Achievement? Some Research Says Yes; some Says No Considerable Battling Over Vouchers ? My work Said They Were the Same as Public ? Still are Similar Results in OH Contested Results in Dayton, NYC, DC (Privately funded voucher experiments) Charters ? Raging Battle As We Speak Does Choice Lead to Greater Attainment? Almost No Research But Research on Catholic H.S. Says Yes Does Choice Lead to Greater Competition? Mixed on Vouchers We Have Evidence that Yes in WI for Charters and Open Enrollment The Future of Choice? Vouchers State Constitutional Barriers Politics are Against Charters 40 states, 3800 schools Obama Favors Open Enrollment May Be the Future Education in the Future Obama Reauthorization of No Child Left Behind? Very Hard to Say ? Web Site/ Dept. of Education Vast Generalities Battle over Vouchers Will Support Pre-School Expenditures (Without Witte Vouchers) Charters to a Degree Future Alternatives ? Millennium Paper Uncommon Schools Specialized Education ?Ancillary? Education School Without Walls Schools Without Teachers Global Education
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