Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
The idea that members of congress will join committees that best serve the interests of their district and committee members will support each other’s legislation.
The idea that having committees in congress made up of experts on specific policy areas helps to ensure well informed policy decisions.
One of the steps through which a bill becomes a law, in which the final wording of the bill is determined.
The president’s rejection of a bill that has been passed by congress. A veto can be overridden by a two thirds vote in both the house and senate.
The automatic death of a bill passed by the house and senate when the president fails to sign the bill in the last ten days of a legislative session.
Large bills that often cover several topics and may contain extraneous, or pork barrel, projects.
One way of moving a piece of legislation to the top of the agenda in the house; debate on the bill is limited to forty minutes, amendments are not allowed, and the bill must pass by a two thirds vote.
A procedure through which the senate can limit the amount of time spent debating a bill (cutting off a filibuster), if a supermajority of 60 senators agree
A tactic used by senators to block a bill by continuing to hold the floor and speak-under the senate rule of unlimited debate-until the bill’s supporters back down.
Conditions placed on a legislative debate by the House Rules Committee prohibiting amendments to a bill.
Conditions placed on a legislative debate by the house rules committee allowing relevant amendments to a bill.
Conditions placed on a legislative debate by the House Rules Committee allowing certain amendments to a bill while barring others.
A form of oversight in which Congress overturns bureaucratic decisions.
Powers derived from the provisions of the Constitution that outline the president’s role in government.
Powers derived from laws enacted by congress that add to powers given to the president in the Constitution
Article II, section 1, of the Constitution, which states that “executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America,” making the president both the head of government and the head of state.
Selction by the president of a person to be an ambassador or the head of a department while the senate is not in session, therby bypassing Senate approval. Unless approved by a subsequent Senate vote, recess appointees serve only to the end of the congressional term
An expedited system for passing treaties under which support from a simple majority, rather than a two thirds majority, is needed in both the House and Senate, and no amendments are allowed.
The president’s power to initiate treaty negotiations. Congress cannot initiate treaties and can only consider them once they have been negotiated.
An agreement between the executive branch and a foreign government which acts as a treaty but does not require Senate approval
An annual speech in which the presiden addresses Congress to report on the condition of the country and recommend policies
The right of the president to keep executive branch conversations and correspondence confidential from the legislative and judicial branches.
The percentage of Americans who feel that the president is doing a good job in office.
A president’s use of speeches and other public communications to appeal directly to citizens about issues the presiden would like the House and Senate to act on.
The group of policy-related offices that serves as support staff to the president.
Any policy decision made and acted upon by the president and his staff without the explicit approval or consent of Congress.
The idea that the vesting clause of the Constitution gives the president the authority to issue orders and policy directives that cannot be undone by Congress
A document issued by the president when signing a bill into law explaining his interpretation of the law, which often differs from the interpretation of Congress, in an attempt to influence how the law will be implemented.
A negative or checking power over the other branches that allows Congress to remove the president, vice president, or other “officers of the United States” (including federal judges) for abuses of power.
The law in which Congress laid out the organization of the federal judiciary. The law refined and clarified federal court jurisdiction and set the original number of justices at six. It also created the Office of the Attorney General and established the lower federal courts.
Lower level trial courts of the federal judicial system that handle most U.S. federal cases.
The authority of a court to hear appeals from lower courts and change or uphold the decision.
The supreme Court’s power to strike down a law or executive branch action that it finds unconstitutional.
The authority of a court to handle a case first, as in the Supreme Court’s authority to initially hear disputes between two states. However, original jurisdiction for the supreme court is not exclusive; it may assign such as case to a lower court.
The process of determining whether a piece of legislation or governmental action is supported by the Constitution.
The various methods and tests used by the courts for determining the meaning of a law and applying it to specific situations. Congress may overturn the courts’ interpretation by writing a new law; thus it also engages in statutory interpretation.
The person or party who brings a case to court.
The person or party against whom a case is brought.
An agreement between a plaintiff and defendant to settle a case before it goes to trial or the verdict is decided. In a civil case this usually involves an admission of guilt and an agreement on monetary damages; in a criminal case it often involves an admission of guilt in return for a reduced charge or sentence.
Class Action Lawsuit
A case brought by a group of individuals on behalf of themselves and others in the general public who are in similar circumstances
Law based on the precedent of previous court rulings rather than on legislation. It is used in all federal courts and 49 of the fifty state courts.
A legal norm established in court cases that is then applied to future cases dealing with the same legal questions
Legitimate justification for bringing a civil case to court.
The sphere of a court’s legal authority to hear and decide cases
The intermediate level of federal courts that hear appeals from district courts. More generally, an appeals court is any court with appellate jurisdiction.
A norm in the nomination of district court judges in which the president consults with his party’s senators from the relevant state in choosing the nominee.
The irrelevance of a case by the time it is received by a federal court, causing the court to decline to hear the case
A criterion that federal courts use to decide whether a case is ready to be heard. A case’s ripeness is based on whether its central issue or controversy has actually taken place.
The most common way for a case to reach the Supreme court in which at least four of the nine justices agree to hear a case that has reached them via an appeal from the losing party in a lower court’s ruling.
A system initiated in the Supreme Court in the 1970s in which law clerks screen cases that come to the Supreme Court and recommend to the justices which cases should be heard.
A presidential appointee in the Department of Justice who conducts all litigation on behalf of the federal government before the Supreme Court and supervises litigation in the federal appellate courts.
Spoken presentation made in person by the lawyers of each party to a judge or appellate court outlining the legal reasons their side should prevail.
The theory that justices should surmise the intentions of the Founders when the language of the Constitution is unclear.
A way of interpreting the Constitution that takes into account evolving national attitudes and circumstances rather than the text alone.
A way of understanding decisions of the Supreme Court based on the political ideologies of the justices.
The idea that the Supreme Court should defer to the democratically elected executive and legislative branches of government rather than contradicting existing laws.
The idea that the supreme court should assert its interpretation of the law even if it overrules the elected executive and legislative branches of government.
Throughout U.S. history,Americans have
According to Harold Lasswell,politics is
Few of our Founding Fathersideas were original thoughts, but those based on theorists who contributedideas from 1600-1800, concluding that people have individual rights. The twoincluded in your text book are:
The gambling industry in yourstate wants to change the state constitution to allow gambling. They organize acampaign through voter signatures and put their proposal directly on theballot. This is called a( n)
Laissez-faire capitalism hasbeen limited by
What kind of government do wehave?
For Americans,the definition of liberty refers to
In class, we discussed"individualism" as a value in our political culture. What roledoes it play in our government system?
The bourgeoisie of westernEurope wanted to
Which of the following would bean example of the "Limits of Ideals"?
How much do Americans know abouttheir government?
The American government systemruns by the "Rules of the Game of Politics", which follows threebasic rule theories. What are they?
A system of government thatrecognizes no formal limits on its power is
Many of the conflicts inAmerican politics today revolve around
The majority of Americansbelieve that “government is run by a few big interests” and that governmentofficials “don’t care what people think.” The term used to describe this wouldbe
In recent years, more and moreAmericans are learning about government from
A form of government whereby afew people control most of the governing decisions, is called
Realistically, the United Statesdid not become a full practicing democracy until
Pluralism is a very importantaspect of American government structure. Its premise is
Which of the following is thecurrent U.S. Speaker of the House?
According to your textbook, whyare knowledgeable citizens more engaged in politics?
The belief that citizens canaffect government is called political
The formal institutions thatrule a people are called its
The framers of the Constitutionstipulated that the number of representatives in the House of Representatives“shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand. . . ” constituents, but todaythe average member of Congress represents approximately how many people?
The United States’ corepolitical values are
In a democracy, sovereignty isvested in
Which of the following is not aprinciple of our democracy?
Which of the followingstatements describes America’s growing population since its founding?
The number of elderly Americanshas grown and the number of children eighteen and under has declined.
The Virginia Plan was favoredby
What is the purpose of theTenth Amendment?
Colonialprotesters of the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act rallied around what famouspolitical slogan?
Most of the seventeenConstitutional amendments ratified since the Bill of Rights in 1791 have beendirectly or indirectly concerned with
The Federalistsbelieved that the most apparent source of tyranny was
Which was the onlystate not to send delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia?
In the nationaldebate over ratification of the new Constitution, the Federalists
Which of thefollowing is correct under the Constitution?
Federalism wasinvented in
When was our current constitutionwritten?
The Shays’s Rebellion wassignificant in that it
A ___________ is asystem of government in which states retain sovereign authority except forpowers expressly delegated to a national government.
According to the text, thestory of the founding is important because
The essentialdilemma of a limited government raised by the ratification debates is
a government too weak to doharm also cannot do good.
The system of sharedpowers, divided between a central government and the states, is called
Under the Great Compromise,small states were given an advantage in the
What led theBritish to raise taxes on the American colonists during the 1760s?
Only one-third ofthe Senate is up for re-election during any single election year, because theframers believed that
An important issue dividingFederalists and Antifederalists was the threat of tyranny, meaning,
Under the original, unamendedConstitution, the only person(s) elected directly by the people was/were
Which of thefollowing explains the ideas of the Constitution and urges its ratification?
Bicameralism is aconstitutional principle that means the
Which of thefollowing best describes the form of government established by the U.S.Constitution?
The Tenth Amendment
Under the Articlesof Confederation, the relationship between the states and the federalgovernment can be best compared to
The United States' firstwritten constitution was
The Constitutionwas ratified by
The framers of theConstitution intended to create a presidency capable of
The principle ofchecks and balances is based on the notion that
Proponents of the idea ofthe living Constitution argue that?
The Equal Rights Amendment
An amendment to the U.S.Constitution may be proposed in which of the following ways?
The Federalistsbelieved that the powers of government could be limited by
What is the termlength of a federal judge?
According tohistorian Charles Beard, the framers at the Constitutional Convention inPhiladelphia were most concerned with
The division of powers andfunctions between the national government and state governments is thedefinition of
The purpose of the first tenamendments was to
Which of the followingconcepts best explains the underlying reason for the Bill of Rights?
Most of the rules andregulations Americans face in their daily lives are set by
Theorists such as Montesquieureferred to the principle of giving each branch of government a distinctlydifferent constituency as:
The powers ofCongress under the Constitution are __________ those of Congress under theArticles of Confederation.
Proceduresoutlining how to amend the Constitution are found in Article
One specific powerthat is written in Article VI of the constitution states that national lawprevails over state law. This section is called:
Since 1789, more than 11,000amendments were formally offered in Congress. Of these, only ____________ werefinally ratified by the states.
The Connecticut Plan providedfor which of the following?
The power of judicial review
The Constitution SPECIFICALLY grantsCongress the power to do all of the following EXCEPT:
According tochapter 3 of your textbook, McCulloch v. Maryland is animportant case because
Advocates of devolution arguethat it encourages policy experimentation and innovation by states. The phrasethat reflects this sentiment is
Which of the following bestexemplifies the doctrine of preemption?
Which is the best example of aconcurrent power under the federal constitution?
Which of the following rights isnot found in the original,unamended Constitution?
When a state's laws conflictwith federal law on international trade issues
Especially since the New Deal inthe 1930s, ____________ has/have played a much more prominent role inprotecting liberty and promoting equality.
One specific power that iswritten in Article VI of the Constitution states that national law prevailsover state law. This section is called:
When the federal government setsenvironmental standards that every state must follow, it is an example of
According to the chart shown inclass, which level of government employs more workers?
Which clauses of theConstitution involve the relationships among various states?
The absorption of certainprovisions of the Bill of Rights by the Fourteenth Amendment so that theserights are protected from infringements by the state governments is called:
Which of the following has notbeen an important contractual topic between states?
Gibbons v. Ogden in 1824 was important becauseit
Civil liberties, through theBill of Rights, are individual legal and constitutional protections that arelocated
Regulations or new conditionsfor receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for whichthey are not reimbursed by the national government is the definition of
Which of the following is mostclosely related to the concept of implied powers?
The era of "NewFederalism" began in the
In contrast to __________federalism that defined America until the 1930s, since the New Deal, ____________federalism has prevailed.
What is a grant-in-aid?
States' rights advocates arguethat
Thefederal government's power to tax, regulate commerce among the states, and todeclare war are all examples of ____________ powers
One benefit of having a federal systemis that
By the end of 2008, how manystates allowed same-sex marriage?
Which of the following is thebest example of a unitary system of government?
McCullough v Maryland was decisive because it
McCullough v Maryland was decisive because it
What was the unique situation ofAmerica that forced the adoption of federalism in the new U.S. Constitution?
For what purpose did theFounders create a federal system of government?
Which provision allows cities aguarantee of noninterference in various local affairs by state governments?
Which level of government is notaddressed in the Constitution?
Implied powers of the necessaryand proper clause allows
Which of the following is astronger argument for increasing the power of the national government?
Which of the following systemsof government provide states with the most autonomy?
Which statement best describesthe Supreme Court’s trend in interpreting federalism since the mid-1990s?
Which of the followingstatements best captures the meaning of the concept devolution of authority?
Your driver's license is validin all 50 states as a result of
Which U.S. Supreme Court rulingwas the first to extend First Amendment freedom of speech protections throughthe Fourteenth Amendment?
One argument for a strongfederal government is its role in ensuring ______ across states.
The use of personal informationby websites like Facebook and its advertisers raises questions about
According to the text, which ofthe statements below best expresses why the general status of civil libertiescan never be considered fixed and permanent?
Protections of citizens fromimproper government action is the definition of
Which ofthe following statements best reflects the nature of the Bill of Rights?
The substantive constraintsfound in the Bill of Rights
Civil Liberties primarily
A ____________ grant requiresstate and local governments to submit applications to the federal governmentand compete for funding.
Freedom of religion is providedthrough two separate phrases, including:
During the era of dualfederalism, what was the primary goal of the federal government’s domesticpolicies?
to assist the developmentof commercial activity within and between the states
If the federal governmentcompels state governments to obey costly regulations but does not reimbursethose costs, it is called
Which of the following is thebest example of a substantive civil liberty?
The Lemon Test involves whatpart of the Constitution?
The first ten amendments to theU.S. Constitution are known as the
Which type of grant providesmore control to state and local governments in the distribution of federalgrants-in-aid?
Which U.S. Supreme Court rulingwas the first to extend Fifth Amendment protections through the FourteenthAmendment?
The term eminent domaindescribes
The words "under God"were added to the Pledge of Allegiance
The process by which the SupremeCourt has expanded specific parts of the Bill of Rights to protect citizensagainst states and federal actions is called
Nations that adopt a federalarrangement tend to have
The concept of selectiveincorporation means
Which of the following placesrestraints on how the government is supposed to act?
___________________limit whatthe government can DO, while ____________ define HOW the government can act.
What was the Sedition Act?
The Bill of Rights originallyapplied to __________
The procedural restraints foundin the Bill of Rights
What principle did the SupremeCourt establish in 2002, concerning the use of tax-supported vouchers forreligious schools?
Which of the following describesconstitutionally permitted relationships between the states?
The form of federal assistancecalled ______ provides money to state governments with no strings attached.
What is the main purpose behindthe privileges and immunities clause of Article IV?
The full faith and credit clauseof the Constitution
In essence for more than 170years the Bill of Rights
Congressional grants paid for______ percent of the development of an interstate highway after World War II.
About what did Justice Potterconfess, "I know it when I see it"?
The Bill of Rights protectionswere extended by the 14th Amendment to include:
In Texas v Johnson, the SupremeCourt ruled that
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) was important because
Which constitutional amendmentprotects the individual through probable cause and a search warrant?
The term "marble cake"federalism is meant to refer to what development?
Which rights do not fall underconstitutional arguments in favor of the right to privacy?
Which constitutional amendmentprotects the individual from double jeopardy?
A public policy program that isjointly funded, jointly administered, and jointly determined by both state andnational government (like a marble cake) is an example of
Block grants are designed to
The Supreme Court has createdtests to aid in the determination of violations to civil liberties. One testwas used in Schenk v U.S. (1919) by Oliver Wendell Holmes to determinethat there are times the government can limit speech, after citing "eventhe First Amendment can't protect you if you yell fire in a crowdedtheatre". That test is called:
Individual rights considered tobe the most fundamental to maintaining a democratic society are contained inwhich amendment, and stated as which two freedoms?
Why was the Supreme Court case UnitedStates v. Lopez important?
“Due process of law” in theUnited States is generally defined by which amendments
When the national governmentappropriates money to the states but simultaneously demands the authority todictate its distribution, this money is identified as
Which clause of the Constitutionhas been critical in allowing the growth of national power?
The rights to assembly andpetition are guaranteed by the same amendment guaranteeing your right to
The first civil libertyselectively incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment as a limitation on stategovernment power was for
Which of the following rightshad an issue that was just selectively incorporated in 2010, more than 40 yearsafter the previously most recent (1969)?
A law that declares an action tobe illegal after it has been committed is a( n)
As discussed in “The Federalist andAnti-Federalist Debates” which of the
following statements best describesthe disagreement between the
Federalists and theAnti-Federalists over the powers
granted to the national government?
The Anti-federalist objected to the“necessary and proper clause” which
they feared would make the nationalgovt. too strong while the
Federalists believed that thisclause would give the national govt. the
power it needs to exercise itsresponsibilities
Where in the Constitution is the legislativeprocess (passing bills) established?
Article I, Section 7
Recall your reading of FederalistNo. 10. In this essay, Madison argues that
Majority factions are dangerous to liberty.
in the constitution are themajority of restrictions on Congress found.
That is, where does theconstitution outline the powers denied to Congress?
Article I, Section 9
The United States Constitution waswritten in:
As discussed in the text, a form ofgovt. in which the leader is chosen by the legislature is called:
discussed in the text and inlecture, the concept of dual federalism
envisions what relationship betweenthe federal and state governments?
Each has distinct authority withvery little overlap.
. What is the subject of theconstitution’s second article?
What is the subject of theconstitution’s fifth article?
Contains more articles including alocal government article.
As discussed in the text and inlecture, the “elastic” or “necessary and proper” clause refers to:
. As discussed in the text, which of thefollowing is part of the economic values of the US?
As discussed in the text, theagreement that led to the legislature having two houses is called the:
Slave owners had been deprived ofproperty without due process of law
. As discussed in the text and in lecture, thecommerce clause gives:
Congress the power to regulate economicexchange between the states
Congress may not suspend the writof Habeas Corpus
· Congress may notpass an ex post facto law
How are amendments to the USConstitution proposed?
Two-thirds of both houses of Congress must voteto propose an amendment
. How are amendments to the USConstitution proposed?
2/3 of both houses of Congress mustvote to propose an amendment
· 2/3 of the statelegislatures must ask Congress to call a convention to propose an amendment
. how are amendments to the USConstitution proposed?
Two-thirds of bot houses of Congressmust vote to propose an amendment
As discussed in the text and in lecture, theseparation of powers refers to:
Dividing the govt. into different branches withdistinct areas of authority
discussed in the text and inlecture, which of the following is a power
the president can use to check thelegislative branch?
Everyone fails to work toward acommon goal because they are each willing to let someone else do the work
As discussed in the text, the Articles ofconfederation failed because:
It placed too many limits ongovernmental power
The objections to the proposed constitutionoutlined by the anti-federalist writer Brutus in his 3rdand 5th letterscenteronwhich of the following perceived defects in the document?
Problems in representation:representatives will not be typical citizens; they will be “elites.”
· The “necessaryand proper” clause will give the proposed government nearly unlimited powers
As discussed in lecture, the 11th amendment:
As discussed in lecture, Dillon’sRule means:
Those local governments only enjoy those powersgranted to them by the states.
The need to make trade-offs can mean no policyoption satisfies a majority
Which constitutional clause establishes thatnational law supersedes state law within its domain of authority?
The Article VI national supremacy clause
As discussed in the text, for JamesMadison, the problem associated with a tyranny of the majority was that:
discussed in both lecture and inyour reading of the case, what did the
US Supreme court rule in Barron v.Baltimore (1833)?
The 5th amendmentprotection against uncompensated govt. confiscation of private property doesnot
apply to the states
As discussed in lecture, which ofthe following constitutional clauses served as the basis for many New Dealprograms?
The use of federal block grants to give localpoliticians more control over how money was spent
of the following provides aconstitutional guarantee that all persons
within a state are treated equallybefore the law?
Declaration of Independence,Constitution and the Federalist Papers all
reflect ideas associated with whichof the following eras?
Cooperative federalism emergedduring:
constitutional principle did theSupreme Court affirm in the “Gibbons v.
Ogden” (1824) case in the MUReadings in American Government packet?
A cohesive set of ideas and beliefs used fororganizing the political world is an:
When Congress passed the Defense of MarriageAct (DOMA) in 1996, it was trying to:
reading “The Federalist andAnti-Federalist Debates” which of the
following was not an area ofdisagreement between the supporters and
opponents of the Constitution?
Three-quarters of the state legislaturesmust vote to approve the amendment
· Three-quartersstates must approve the amendment in specially called ratifying conventions
a previously decided case that othercourts use as a guide
text- a filibuster is
a senator’s attempt to kill a bill by continuingto speak in order to prevent a vote
. The term “senatorial courtesy”refers to
the president deferring to members ofthe president’s party from each state in choosing nominees
to the district courts in their homestate
. text- the Senior Executive Service(SES) comprises:
high-level civil servants who areexempt from civil service restrictions
. text- the party in govt. comprises:
those politicians who have beenelected into office under a party label