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What type of hiring system existed before the civil service system in 1883
-merit-based civil service
What president’s assassination led to the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
What were the first two federal cabinet departments created
-department of state
-department of treasury
What is the newest federal cabinet department created
-department of homeland security
What courts are courts of “original jurisdiction”
federal district courts
What case established judicial review for the Supreme Court
-William Marbury vs. James Madison
What is the term describing a court’s ability to determine the constitutionality of an action
What does stare decisis mean?
What type of trial has the higher burden of proof (civil or criminal)?
What do the U.S. Court of Appeals do?
How many judges are on the U.S. Supreme Court?
What type of capitalist economy does the United States employ?
Who was the author of Wealth of Nations?
What event led to the end of balanced budgets in the United States
What is fiscal policy
What are the tools of monetary policy as discussed in class
What is deficit spending
What did the first Earth Day of 1970 bring awareness about
What president declared an energy crisis and promoted conservation and energy efficiency
What type of energy is biomass (renewable or non-renewable)
Who funds the unemployment system
What president is credited with the “Great Society” program
What country was Osama bin Laden killed in
When a country penalizes another country economically these actions are called
What is it called when a country takes military action to oust another country’s leader?
What agencies are known for taking the long term and short term approach in foreign policy actions?
long term: Department of state
short term: national security council
What is the foremost federal agency in foreign policy formulation
George Washington embraced what type of foreign policy approach
What foreign policy doctrine was adopted in 1823
-which is: any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the US.
What President introduced the world to the United States as a police power
Identify the countries that have nuclear weapons
Define Dillon’s Rule-
The Dillon Rule is used in interpreting law when there is a question of whether or not a local government has a certain power
Define Home Rule:
The government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.
What state has the largest number of public colleges and universities-
Since 1960, what governmental job has served as the primary training ground for Presidents
What state has a unicameral legislature
What are the 3 direct democracy terms in California
Define the Mayor-Council Plan-
-Mayor (executive) elected independently
-The council (legislative) elected independently
What impact did the Gold Rush have on California
Increased the population
What is a recall
Identify the most powerful position in the California Assembly
How many members are in the California Assembly
How many members are in the California Senate
What are the names of the three court tiers in California
supreme court, courts of appeal/appelate, superior court/trial court
How many justices are there on the California Supreme Court
How many terms can the Governor in California serve
2 terms of 4 years
What is the second most powerful State executive position in California
What types of methods do governments use to contract private business to provide public services
Concession Contract: A negotiated contract between a company and a government that gives the company the right to operate a specific business within the government's jurisdiction, subject to certain conditions
What are shadow bureaucrats
Employees on the payroll of private for-profit businesses and private nonprofit organizations with government contracts
What is the patronage system
What does the Pendleton Civil Service Act do
United States is a federal law established in 1883 that stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit.
What Title of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination based on race, color, age and disabilities
What does the 1939 Hatch Act do
Helps to maintain the public trust in our executive branch. It does this by preventing members of the executive branch from participating in partisan politics.
Which President proposed civil services reforms that resulted in the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
What title is given to the top political appointee of the national government’s 15 departments
What is policy formulation in the policy making process
-Policy formulation:the development of effective and acceptable courses of action for addressing what has been placed on the policy agenda.
-policy making: the act or process of setting and directing the course of action to be pursued by a government, business, etc.
What type of jurisdiction does the U.S. Supreme Court generally have
What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 do
it organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice, along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office. This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government
What early landmark case granted the Supreme Court judicial review
Marbury v. Madison, 1803.
What is the supreme law of the land (U.S.)
What is the compilation of all the laws passed by the U.S. Congress known as
What is the highest form of law
Who files suit in cases dealing with criminal law?
National or State govt. whos law was violated acting as prosecutor of plantif
What is a tort?
Civil wrongs recognized by law as grounds for a lawsuit. These wrongs result in harm or injury constituting the basis for a claim by the injured party.
What type of court is known as a court of last resort?
Supreme Court- highest court in the system, last place where litigants can appeal their cases.
What is the role of Chief Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court?
Who shares power in appointing all federal judges?
The President with the consent of the Senate
What is Senatorial Courtesy regarding judicial appointments?
What is the “Rule of Four”
Four justices must vote in favor of the grant. The rule ordains that the votes of four Justices are needed to grant certiorari and bring a case before the Court for decision on the merits.
U.S. Supreme Court is generally considered to be the most activist in Court history:
When conservatives took control of the federal judiciary in the 1980s, it was widely assumed that they would reverse the landmark rights-protecting precedents set by the Warren Court and replace them with a broad commitment to judicial restraint. Instead, the Supreme Court under Chief Justice William Rehnquist has reaffirmed most of those liberal decisions while creating its own brand of conservative judicial activism.
What factors are evidence of a healthy economy?
What role does government have in a pure capitalist economy?
There is little need for government intervention under this system, and therefore the economy is self-regulating and self-adjusting mechanism. The government is limited to provide certain public goods such as defense, legal system, and protection of property rights.
What does a progressive tax do?
takes a larger percentage of income from high-income groups than from low-income groups and is based on the concept of ability to pay. A progressive tax system might, for example,tax low-income taxpayers at 10 percent, middle-income taxpayers at 15 percent and high-income taxpayers at 30 percent.
The government uses its power of tax expenditures to provide financial support to what groups?
The Federal Reserve presides over what type of economic policy?
Under Keynesian economics, what should the government do to get out of a recession?
Keynes’ strongest argument is that in a recession, private sector saving rises sharply leading to unused saving. Therefore, the government spending is merely making use of unemployed resources. Bond yields on government borrowing won’t rise because the private sector want to buy government bonds.
monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. Though GDP is usually calculated on an annual basis, it can be calculated on a quarterly basis as well.
What branch of government has the “power of the purse”
The power of the purse is vested in the Congress
What president approved the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913?
What does an “entitlement program” mean?
Program that provides individuals with personal financial benefits where indefinite number of potential beneficiaries have a legal right whenever they meet eligibility conditions that are specified by the standing law that authorizes the program. Sometimes business corporations, local governments, or even political parties may have similar special "entitlements" under certain programs.
What did Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring discuss?
described how DDT entered the food chain through animals then to humans and caused cancer. A single application on a crop killed insects for weeks and months and remained toxic in the environment even after it was diluted by rainwater. Carson concluded that DDT and other pesticides had harmed animals and contaminated the entire world's food supply.
What national issues fall into the category of domestic policy?
Domestic security, Maintaining the infrastructure of America, Economic Security and the Social Safety net, and Education Policies
Trade policy, economic aid or penalties are considered tools of what type of policy?
What country has seen a rapid rise in foreign policy aid from the U.S. after 9/11?
What military conflict led to the War Powers Act?
What country’s pursuit of nuclear weapons led to the Obama administration imposing economic sanctions?
What does Cooley’s rule mean?
Do state laws typically offer broader or narrower protections of fundamental rights than the U.S. Constitution?
What do local governments spend the largest portion of their budgets on?
What state first adopted direct democracy procedures in 1898?
What is the largest source of state revenue?
How many states required yearly balanced budgets?
Unlike presidents, what veto powers do state governors enjoy?
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