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the idea that people should be treated the same and that everyone has the right to participate in the voting process in the same way; this does not mean that we will end up the same way, only that we have the rights to participate in the procedure; procedural equality in the US
Liberalism first became a powerful force in the Age of Enlightenment, rejecting several foundational assumptions that dominated most earlier theories of government, such as nobility, established religion, absolute monarchy, and the Divine Right of Kings.
the replacement of previously imported goods with local products
peace treaty at the end of WW1. Ended state of war between Germany and the allied powers. required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war.
-Assumes factors of production are tied to a particular industry
-Within an industry everyone should be on the same side of the argument
ie. US Auto industry
Occurs when groups of countries enter agreements to abolish most restrictions between signers.
e.g NAFTA, EU
World Trade Organization, replaced GATT, continued to encourage international trade,1995-present, only international org. that deals with global rules of trade between nations, it ensures trade flows as smoothly, predictable, and freely as possible
NAFTA has two supplements: the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC).
Industrial policies are sector specific, unlike broader macroeconomic policies.
The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty. According to the World Bank's Articles of Agreement (As amended effective 16 February 1989) all of its decisions must be guided by a commitment to promote foreign investment, international trade and facilitate capital investment.
Since stock transactions usually settle after three business days, a crafty trader can buy a stock and sell it the following day , without ever having sufficient funds in the account.
The 9th and most current round of trade talks, which has as its goal to aid developing countries with respect to agricultural subsidies, more favorable systems for the manufacture and distribution of medical drugs, and the improvement of infrastructure while still lowering barriers for advanced countries on industrial, service and investment flows.
John D. Rockefeller was a founder, chairman and major shareholder.
ADIA has never published how much it has in assets but estimates have been between $300 billion to approximately $875 billion USD. The Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute puts the figure at US$627 billion.
Due to the nature of its investments ADIA does not adhere to the Islamic Sharia.
The organization publishes analysis on the broad spectrum of energy security issues, including books, book chapters, and reports.
the efforts of elected officials to look out for the interests of those who elect them
the creation of policy to address the problems and needs of the entire nation
the loyalty to a party that helps shape how members see the world, how they define problems, and how they determine appropriate solutions
how great the ideological differences are between two parties and in how much ideological agreement there is within them.
a commitment to party so strong that it can transcend other commitments, leading members to choose party over constituents, or over the national interest.
congressional work to advance the issues and ideological preferences of constituents
congressional work to secure projects, services, and funds for the represented district
public works projects and grants for specific districts paid for by general revenues
the privilege of free mail service provided to members of Congress
efforts of members of congress to stand for American ideals or identify with common constituency values
a committee's investigation of the executive and of government agencies to ensure they are acting as Congress intends
efforts by Congress, especially through committees, to monitor agency rule making, enforcement, and implementation of congressional policies
process of dividing states into legislative districts
redistricting to benefit a particular group
redistricting to enhance or reduce the chances that a racial or an ethnic group will elect members to the legislature
the electoral edge afforded to those already in office
office-seekers who base the decision to run on a rational calculation that they will be successful
the added votes received by congressional candidates of a winning presidential party
the tendency for the presidential party to lose congressional seats in off-year elections
the leader of the majority party who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives
the accumulation of power and authority in conjunction with the length of time spent in office
permanent committees responsible for legislation in particular policy areas
the committee that determines how and when debates on a bill will take place
a committee appointed to deal with an issue or a problem not suited to a standing committee
temporary committees formed to reconcile differences in House and Senate versions of bills
the slate of proposals and issues that representatives think is worthwhile to consider and act on
practice of legislators becoming experts and taking leadership roles in specific policy areas
a practice of unlimited debate in the Senate in order to prevent or delay a vote on a bill
a vote to end a Senate filibuster; requires a 3/5 majority, or 60 votes
a large bill that contains so many important elements that members can’t afford to defeat it and the president can’t afford to veto it, even if the bill contains elements they dislike
publicly recorded votes on bills and amendments on the floor of the House or Senate
reversal of a presidential veto by a 2/3 vote in both houses of Congress
a formal charge by the house that the president (or another member of the executive branch) has committed acts of “treason, bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors,” which may or may not result in removal from office
the president's executive role as the head of federal agencies and the person responsible for the implementation of national policy
a presidential advisory group selected by the president, made up of the vice president, the heads of the federal executive departments, and other high official to whom the president elects to give cabinet status
the president's role as the top officer of the country's military establishment
the president's executive role as the primary shaper of relations with other nations (negotiates treaties)
presidential arrangements with other countries that create foreign policy without the need for senate approval
a speech given annually (January) by the president to a joint session of Congress and to the nation announcing the president's policy agenda
a president's authority to reject a bill passed by Congress, may be overridden only by a 2/3 majority in each house
clarification of congressional policy issued by the president and having the full force of law
tradition of granting senior senators of the president's party considerable power over federal judicial appointments in their home states
the Justice Department officer who argues the government's cases before the Supreme Court
a president's authority to release or excuse a person from the legal penalties of a crime
presidential powers implied but not explicitly stated in the Constitution
a president's ability to convince Congress, other political actors, and the public to cooperate with the administration's agenda
a president's strategy of appealing to the public on an issue, expecting that public pressure will be brought to bear on other political actors
the predictable rise and fall of a president's popularity at different stages of a term in office
the time following an election when a president's popularity is high and congressional relations are likely to be productive
political rule split between two parties, one controlling the White House and the other controlling one or both houses of Congress
collection of nine organizations that help the president with policy and political objectives
organization within the EOP that oversees the budgets of departments and agencies
organization within the EOP that advises the president on economic matters
organization within the EOP that provides foreign policy advice to the president
the approximately 400 employees within the EOP who work most closely and directly with the president
the person who oversees the operations of all White House staff and controls access to the president
image protected by the president that represents how he would like to be perceived at home and abroad
an organization characterized by hierarchical structure, worker specialization, explicit rules, and advancement by merit
the principle that bureaucracy should be depoliticized by making it more professional-
the 19th century practice of firing government workers of a defeated party and replacing them with loyalists (family, friends, political supporters) of the victorious party
companies created by Congress to provide a public good or service
companies created by Congress to provide to the public a good or service that private enterprise cannot or will not profitably provide
nonmilitary employees of the government who are appointed through the merit system
the complex procedures and regulations surrounding bureaucratic activity
groups of citizens whose interests are affected by an agency or a department who works to influence its policies
government organization independent of the departments but with a narrower policy focus
government organizations that regulate various businesses, industries, or economic sectors
bureaucrats' use of their own judgment in interpreting and carrying out the laws of Congress
publication containing all federal regulations and notifications of regulatory agency hearings
complex systems of relationships among groups that influence policy, including elected leaders, interest groups, specialists, consultants, and research institutes
legislation opening the process of bureaucratic policymaking to the public
1966 law that allows citizens to obtain copies of most public records
a law that gives citizens access to the government's files on them
U.S.’ way of trial: with two opposing sides and a neutral judge. Judges have the primary role of applying the law, keep the proceedings fair, and make rulings when appropriate. Maintains the key principle of “innocent until proven guilty.”
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