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plan proposed by larger states during the Convention that based representation in national legislature on population
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature based on proportional representation, favoring larger states
response to Virginia plan from smaller states asking for equal representation in national legislature
compromise between large and small states, proposed by Connecticut in which Congress would have two houses, Senate: 2 per state, House: based on population
compromise between the New Jersey and Virginia plans that created one chamber of the Congress based on population (House of Representatives) and one chamber representing each state equally (Senate:every state gets two); also called the Conneticut Compromise.
10th amendment, powers not given to national government by Constitution and not prohibited by states, are reserved by the states or the people
decision to count each slave as ⅗ a person when counting population for House legislation and distribution taxes
Article 1, Sec. 8 of Constitution, grants Congress power to pass all laws related to one of its expressed powers aka elastic clause
Article 1, Sec. 8 of Constitution, gives Congress power to regulate commerce among the several states
powers explicitly granted to Congress, the president, or the Supreme court in the first three articles of the Constitution
powers supported by the Constitution that are not expressly stated in it
CONGRESS SHALL MAKE NO LAW RESPECTING AN ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION,
OR PROHlBITING THE FREE EXERCISE THEREOF; OR ABRIDGING THE FREEDOM OF
SPEECH, OR OF TlIE PRESS, OR THE RIGJ IT OF THE PEOPLE PEACEABLY TO ASSEMBLE,
AND TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES.
A WELL REGULATED MILITIA, BEING NECESSARY TO TIIE SECURITY OF A FREE
STATE, THE RIGHT OF Tl IE PEOPLE TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS, SHALL NOT BE INFRINGED.
IN SUITS AT COMMON LAW, WHERE Tl IE VALUE IN CONTROVE RSY SHALL EXCEED
TWENTY DOLLARS, THE RIGHT OF TRJAL BY JURY SHALL BE PRESERV ED, AND NO FACT
TRJED BY A JURY SHA LL BE OTHERWISE RE-EXAMINED TN ANY COURT OF TllE UNITED
STATES, THAN ACCORDINGTOTHERULESOFTHECOMMON LAW.
THE ENUMERATION IN THE CONSTITUTION OF CERTAIN RIGHTS SHALL NOT BE
CONSTRUED TO DENY OR DISPARAGE OTHERS RETAlNED BY THE PEOPLE.
THAT CITIZENS HAVE RETAINED RIGHTS THAT ARE NOT SPELLED OUT IN THE OTHER AMENDMENTS.
. THE MOST FAMIOUS CASE DECIDED UNDER THIS AMENDMENT HAS BEEN ROE V. WADE.
IF NOT FOR THIS AMENDMENT. CONGRESS MAY NEVER HAVE ADOPTED THE BILL OF RIGHTS. THERE WERE CONCERNS THAT IT WOULD BE ALL THE RIGHTS THE CITIZENS COULD HAVE
IN ALL CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS, TJE ACCUSED SHALL ENJOY THE RIGHT TO A
SPEEDY AND PUBLIC TRIAL, BY AN IMPARTIAL JURY OF THE STATE
, AND TO BE INFORMED OF THE NATURE AND CAUSE OF TllE ACCUSATION; TO BE CONFRONTED WITH THE WITNESSE S AGAINST HIM; TO HAVE COMPULSORYPROCESS FOR OBTAIN ING WITNESSES IN HIS FAVOR, AND TO HAVE THE ASSISTAN CE OF COUNSEL FOR lllS DEFENCE.
THE POWERS NOT DELEGATED TO THE UNITED STATES BY THE CONSTITUTION,
NOR PROHIBITED BY ITTO THE STATES, ARE RESERVED TO TIIE STATES RESPECTIVELY, OR TO THE PEOPLE.
13TH/14TH/15TH AMENDMENTS ARE KNOWN AS THE
AMENDMENT:what does it entail?
THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT AMENDMENT OUT SID£ THE BILL OF RIGHTS. THE PROTECTIONS FROM BILL OF RIGHTS ONLY APPLIED TO FED LAWS. THE 14th AMENDMENT, WITH ITS "EQUAL PROTECTION UNDER THE LAWS" CLAUSE ADDED ALL THE PROTECTION OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS TO STATE LAWS. THIS AMENDMENT WAS DIRECTED AT THE STATES. THE PASSAGE OF THIS = THE PROTECTIONS OFFERED TO CITIZENS UNDER BILL OF RIGHTS COVER BOTH FEDERAL & STATE LAWS.
THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES TO VOTE
SI IALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR BY ANY STATE ON ACCOUNT OF RACE, COLOR, OR PREVIOUS CONDITION OF SERVITUDE.
THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO LAY AND COLLECT TAXES
ON INCOMES, FROM WHATEVER SOURCE DERIVED ...
drafting legislation, conducting research, and working with other groups
When people remember whether or not they like a candidate or politician, but not why, they are engaged in forming opinions on the spot, which tend to be based on:
B. memory-‐based processing
C. value-‐based thinking
D. political socialization
Which of the following best describes the liberal-conservative profile of the American public?
A. A majority of Americans describe themselves as conservative.
B. Most Americans are neither strongly conservative nor strongly liberal. C. Most Americans lean toward being more liberal than conservative or moderate.
D. Americans are deeply divided, with most of them being either strongly liberal or strongly conservative.
E. Research on the liberal-‐conservative profile of the American public is inconsistent, and has generally yielded inconclusive results.
Polling of the Afghanistan war reveals that:
A. the public has remained deeply polarized on foreign policy issues B. the public always views war as the nation’s most important problem
C. the public remains strongly supportive of U.S. war efforts no matter the
D. public support for war can be influenced by major events such as the death of Osama bin Laden
E. public support rarely changes even following major events such as the death of Osama bin Laden
People who give answers that they believe interviewers want to hear are a problem for survey research because this can lead to social desirability bias.
Early public research came to startling conclusions about public opinion, including:
A. many citizens had surprisingly high levels of factual information B. Americans were overwhelmingly conservative on almost every political issue C. Americans were overwhelmingly liberal on almost every political issue D. many citizens held inconsistent opinions E. older Americans were less informed about politics than most firsttime voters
An issue scale asks people:
A. to state how closely they are to one of several policy options
B. how liberal or conservative they feel
C. why they are Republican or Democrat
D. what policies are most important to them
E. to identify their socioeconomic status
Sampling error in surveys increases when the survey questions are misleading.
Public opinion surveys indicate that the economy is:
A. almost always one of the top three issues of concern to Americans B. a concern of the poor and working class, but not the wealthy
C. almost always a greater concern to Republicans than to Democrats D. only a top concern when unemployment is high
E. more likely to be a top concern when there is a Republican president
Most people have political opinions that are similar to those of their parents because research shows that an individual’s interactions with others while growing up can have a significant influence on an individual’s political opinions later in life.
A. true B. false
The United States has experienced a significant increase in ideological polarization in the past thirty years.
A. true B. false
Climate change has been a difficult issue for members of Congress and the president to agree upon because:
A. Democrats and Republicans are sharply divided on the issue
B. the public’s opinion is vastly different from the opinions shared by most members of Congress
C. the public’s opinion differs sharply from the president’s position
D. public opinion changes frequently on the issue E. the issue involves science
Social desirability bias is a problem for surveys because:
A. it increases sampling error
B. the results fail to account for the opinions of the poor C. the answers from respondents are not truthful
D. it skews the results in favor of Republican candidates E. it skews the results in favor of Democratic candidates
Although Americans generally tend to dislike , they are relatively happy with .
A. their own representatives; the American political system B. the U.S. Congress as a whole; their own representatives
C. both of their state’s U.S. senators; their representative in the U.S. House D. democracy; their own representatives
E. the president; the federal government
Which of the following is considered a problem with mass surveys?
A. Random sampling produces sampling error in surveys.
B. Results are often inadvertently influenced by how questions are worded in the survey.
C. A typical mass survey of 1,000 people is simply not large enough to draw scientific conclusions about national public opinion.
D. Random digit dialing only reaches people with telephones, which biases the sample by over-‐representing the wealthy.
E. Organizations that conduct polls almost always skew their results to favor the candidate or party that they support.
Many opinion polls focus on evaluations of government and officeholders because:
A. most people enjoy following these polls
B. views on how government is performing are often an indicator of people’s views on specific policies
C. political parties and campaigns use them to mobilize their supporters D. the news organizations that sponsor them are attempting to shape public opinion by reporting the results of these polls
E. officeholders demand that this be done so that they have the information they need to serve their constituents
One study found that people are more likely to know the names of characters on The Simpsons than to know which individual liberties the Bill of Rights guarantees. If studies like this one were the last word on public opinion research, there would be:
A. evidence of how television programs play a powerful role in the political socialization of Americans
B. little need to study public opinion because most people would have little to say of importance
C. strong reason to study public opinion because it would demonstrate that television is potentially harmful to democracy
D. a serious crisis for American government because it would show that “government by the people” was destined for collapse
E. cause for concern among political scientists because it would show how sampling error affects public opinion research
A Pew Research Center survey of 1,500 randomly selected people, with a sampling error of +/-3, showed that 52 percent of the respondents viewed the military effort in Afghanistan to be going well. Based on this result, what percentage of the population views the military effort in Afghanistan to be going well?
A. 52 percent
B. anywhere from 49 to 52 percent C. anywhere from 52 to 55 percent D. anywhere from 49 to 55 percent E. sampling error and the question wording make it impossible to determine
Americans’ collective demands for government action on domestic policies are measured by:
A. ideological polarization B. policy mood
C. trust in government D. partisanship
E. the reelection rates of incumbent officeholders
Mass opinion surveys:
A. have become more accurate over time because of the increase in Internet polls
B. have become so sophisticated that scientists have been able to eliminate any margin of error
C. are a powerful tool for measuring public opinion but should be interpreted carefully
D. should never be trusted because samples are almost always biased
E. cannot give an accurate picture of public opinion because media outlets that often conduct the surveys have a liberal bias
The main reason that people have low levels of conceptualization is because they are forming opinions “on the spot.”
While 38 percent of those surveyed with a high school education in the 2010 General Social Survey agree that the Bible is the literal word of God, only 11 percent of those with an advanced degree in the survey share that opinion. This difference is an example of what concept discussed in the text?
A. importance of groups in opinion formation
B. latent opinions
C. social desirability bias
D. political values
E. partisan preferences
A is a subgroup that is carefully chosen from a larger group of people.
A. random sample B. population C. push poll
D. sampling error E. target population
The fact that people are socialized into politics by their family and community means that:
A. they never modify their political principles B. their opinions almost never change
C. very little thought goes into political opinions
D. events early in life can affect one’s sense of civic duty into adulthood
E. other possible sources of influence, such as a high school civics class or political activity at a young age, have no real impact on one’s political principles
Political scientist John Zaller showed that opinion changes generated by an event or some other piece of new information are more likely when:
A. the individual is a senior citizen and has more life experiences upon which to reflect
B. the individual follows politics closely and knows that political issues can be complicated
C. the individual is more highly educated and is used to considering different possibilities
D. the individual is liberal and open-‐minded about different ideas and explanations
E. the individual does not have a set of preexisting principles with which to interpret the event
Which of the following statements about sampling error is true?
A. Sampling error can be eliminated from a mass survey.
B. Sampling error prevents any poll results from being taken seriously.
C. Sampling error is usually lower if the majority of the sample includes people with a four-‐year college degree.
D. Sampling error is usually lower if the majority of the sample includes people with strong political opinions.
E. Sampling error decreases as the size of the sample gets larger.
According to the research of political scientists Lawrence Jacobs and Robert Shapiro, shifting public reaction against President Obama’s heath care proposal was based on:
A. the haphazard way that people sought information about the proposal B. the fact that most Americans have long opposed health care reform C. the way that the proposal was framed by the mass media
D. which news organization conducted the survey
E. how opponents used images and made dire predictions of what the proposal might do
Inaccurate or outlandish survey results sometimes derive from the fact that
A. random samples are almost impossible to obtain
B. Americans hold increasingly extreme ideological and political views C. people do not necessarily take polls seriously
D. news organizations bias their results to improve the survey results for their preferred candidate or issue
E. the American public knows and understands very little about politics
When an issue or topic is salient, the survey respondent is:
A. likely to be confused by the question
B. unlikely to answer the question or to take it seriously C. likely to express thoughtful, but inaccurate opinions D. likely to express thoughtful and accurate opinions E. likely to answer the question, but with a response that the respondent thinks the interviewer wants to hear
Public opinion polls concerning the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan reveal:
A. most people gave responses based on their feelings about war in general B. most people remain strong supporters of war even over a long period of time C. most people gave responses that distinguished between the two conflicts D. most people expressed apathy about the two wars
E. most people had no clear or distinguishable views about the two wars
Over the last three decades, how have the ideological views of the American public changed?
A. There has been a significant increase in the number of conservatives. B. There has been a significant increase in the number of moderates. C. There has been a significant increase in the number of liberals.D. There has been no significant increase among liberals, moderates, or conservatives.
E. There is no conclusive evidence on this subject.
The quality and types of news sources vary most in which media format?
A. Internet B. radio C. television
D. newspapers E. magazines
A difficulty in determining media effects is causality—that is, whether exposure to a story actually leads people to change their minds about a particular issue.
A. true B. false
When ________ think about the press, they tend to see it as having a ________ bias.
A. Democrats; liberal
B. Democrats; Republican C. Republicans; liberal D. Republicans; negative E. Democrats; positive
Which of the following events illustrates the potential importance of Internet content that comes from the homegrown media?
A. video of George Allen’s “macaca” comment B. Howard Stern’s decision to leave daytime radio
C. Alberto Gonzales’s chat with citizens after publishing an op-ed
D. Chris Matthews’s blog, Hardblogger
E. analysis of Supreme Court decisions on SCOTUSblog
While major television networks and cable stations are limited in what they can do by their ________, the ease with which they can produce content gives them an advantage in the area of ________.
A. medium of communication; timeliness B. medium of communication; breadth C. resources; timeliness
D. resources; medium of communication
E. timeliness; resources
The Center for Responsive Politics and Pollster are examples of Web sites that:
A. are Internet-only news providers B. are search engines
C. have many videos of campaign events D. provide blogs written by top journalists E. collect links to political information
When William Randolph Hearst said to one of his reporters, “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war,” it was an example of:
A. priming and framing B. media influence
D. yellow journalism E. soft news
The media’s focus on horse race stories reflects their lack of interest in helping people make good decisions.
A. true B. false
Which of the following terms describes a situation in which people’s opinions change as a consequence of the type of considerations mentioned in press stories?
A. priming effect B. persuasion effect C. filtering effect D. framing effect E. slant effect
Many Americans learn about politics accidentally, illustrating:
A. that the primary purpose of the media is framing how people think about politics
B. the pervasive power of the media even when they are not focusing on politics and government C. the minimal effects hypothesis
D. the by-product theory
The Internet has raised the barriers to publication since many people are not savvy enough to understand the technology.
A. true B. false
Despite guarantees of freedom of the press in the Constitution, at times the government seeks ways to keep the press from publishing sensitive information and to manipulate press coverage.
A. true B. false
The Federal Communications Commission was prompted to revise its ownership restrictions because of:
A. its decisions in the Howard Stern and Janet Jackson situations B. the Communications Act of 1934
C. the Telecommunications Act of 1996
D. its lack of authority over satellite radio and television broadcasts
E. the expansion of the Internet
Reporters sometimes do not publish a good story right away because:
A. they agree that it is sensitive for national security, and they will get rewards for cooperating with government in the form of other stories
B. there is a threat of being sued
C. they are part of the political establishment, just like those inside the government D. of the fear of prior restraint
E. of the fear of decreased readership/viewership
Which of the following real scenarios involves interpretation of the equal time provision?
A. the number of radio stations owned by Clear Channel Communications B. Rush Limbaugh’s politically conservative talk show
C. Stephen Colbert’s presidential candidacy in 2007 D. the expansion of satellite television
E. media coverage of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan
Which of the following is NOT a strategy the government uses to stop certain stories from being published?
A. using a judicial order that allows prior restraint B. suspending press credentials of unfriendly media
C. appealing to the press, asking them to voluntarily not publish something
D. enforcing laws preventing publication of classified material E. threatening to cut off access to sources for future stories
Research about media bias shows that:
A. bias favors liberal views
B. bias favors conservative views
C. bias is pervasive in all media D. bias never occurs
E. bias is not pervasive and that when it does occur, it is caused by competition in the marketplace
One of the most important ways that the media influence people is through their decisions of what to cover. This kind of filtering is practically unavoidable.
A. true B. false
Which of the following is NOT regulated by the Federal Communications Commission?
A. radio B. television
D. ownership of broadcast media outlets E. telephones
Which of the following is NOT associated with the decline of American newspapers in recent years?
A. decline in readership
B. loss of advertising revenue
C. competition from one or more newspapers within large cities D. competition from Internet news sources
E. the closing of national and international bureaus
The large array of media sources means that there are a large number of magazines that provide extensive coverage of political events.
A. true B. false
According to the textbook, newspapers are “prisoners of the news cycle” because:
A. editors have little control over news content B. qualified reporters are hard to find
C. so many newspapers have gone out of business
D. they only publish once per day E. they do not have enough readers
Which one of the following is NOT a criticism of the media’s contribution to American democracy?
A. Much of it is soft news.
B. It engages in attack journalism. C. It focuses too much on hard news.
D. There is a lot of horse race coverage.
E. Its stories are written on an advanced level that the average American has difficulty understanding.
Which of the following is NOT a key characteristic of most modern American media?
A. attack journalism B. hard news
C. soft news
D. horse race coverage
E. competition in the marketplace
The trend toward single-company ownership of several kinds of media outlets is known as:
A. cross-ownership B. concentration
C. media conglomerates D. networks
Opponents of deregulation argue that he public will not be better served since:
A. too many viewpoints will confuse voters
B. radio stations will have a disproportionate share of media markets C. programming may become too homogenized
D. the government will lose money from fewer fines imposed by the FCC E. political news will not be as popular
Deregulation of media content occurred because Congress believed station owners were doing a good job in their role as public trustees to provide fair and unbiased information.
A. true B. false
Which of the following is a characteristic of newspapers in colonial America?
A. relatively high levels of circulation B. the practice of “yellow” journalism
C. stories from journalists known as “muckrakers” D. high publication cost
E. lack of political news
Early analyses of media effects using survey data found that the media had:
A. maximum effects on political knowledge or behavior B. no effect on political knowledge or behavior
C. encouraged citizens to learn more about politics
D. minimal effects on political knowledge or behavior E. helped citizens gain a better understanding of politics
How do the fairness doctrine and the equal time provision differ?
A. One requires reporters of different perspectives, whereas the other requires exactly the same number
of reporters from both sides of the political aisle.
B. One requires balanced reporting, while the other requires political programming to get the same amount of time as entertainment programming.
C. One requires a variety of political coverage, while the other requires a specific amount of coverage.
D. There is almost no difference.
E. One regulates broadcasters, while the other regulates print press.
The 2012 election was a election; the 2010 election was a election.
A. midterm; presidential B. general; presidential C. primary; general D. general; primary
E. presidential; midterm
An important activity of any campaign is , which most directly involves
A. mobilizing supporters; the ground game
B. converting opponents into supporters; the ground game C. mobilizing supporters; name recognition
D. converting opponents into supporters; campaign platforms E. name recognition; campaign platforms
Independent voters are those who:
A. only vote occasionally
B. are not concerned with issues in an election C. only vote when they like a particular candidate
D. are the smallest group of voters in the United States
E. say they do not belong to a political party
The electoral college accords each state a number of electoral votes, which are equal to the state’s representation in the House of Representatives and the Senate.
A. true B. false
Which of the following describes a situation in which legislative reelection rates are high and the issues are relatively local?
A. the popular vote
B. an incumbent election C. a normal election D. a nationalized election E. a primary election
In a normal election, voters typically focus on all of the following factors to make a decision EXCEPT:
A. incumbency B. partisanship
C. personal connection D. retrospective evaluations E. fund-‐raising ability
Traditionally, the first primary in the nation is in:
A. New Hampshire B. Iowa
C. South Carolina D. Nevada
Typically, members of which of the following groups do not turn out in large numbers to vote?
A. whites B. men
C. people without a high school education or less
D. middle-‐aged people E. women
527 organizations can accept unlimited amounts of but cannot use that money on behalf of a specific .
A. soft money; candidate B. soft money; issue
C. hard money; candidate D. hard money; issue
E. soft money; party platform
Because concerns such as economic worries cause voters to lower evaluations of incumbent politicians, those concerns:
A. lead to retrospective voting and create conditions for nationalized elections B. create conditions for a normal election C. create instability in party control of the legislature D. cause incumbents to spend more money on advertising E. decrease the chance of the incumbent facing a strong challenger
Which of the following is a principal effect of campaign contributions in American legislative elections?
A. They alter the behavior of legislators.
B. Legislators give contributors favorable policies.
C. They help legislators, who are already favored by contributors, to win. D. They alter the campaign behavior of challengers.
E. They favor Republicans over Democrats.
Election rules and how they are implemented by officials matter because:
A. there is no legal way to challenge the outcome of an election B. in close races, small changes to rules can change electoral outcomes C. an election must be held a second time if the rules are not followed
D. there are different rules that must be used if voter turnout is higher than expected E. there are different rules that must be used if voter turnout is lower than expected
The use of proportional allocation for convention delegates can cause the primary season to be more competitive and last longer.
A. true B. false
The Republican nomination race in 2008 was much shorter than the Democratic nomination race, partly because of the difference in:
A. the Republicans’ use of closed primaries versus open primaries B. their use of primaries
C. their nomination calendar
D. their rules for allocating convention delegates within the states E. their use of caucuses
Which of the following can contribute to an incumbent president facing competition for the party’s nomination during a reelection bid?
A. open primaries B. low approval ratings C. closed primaries D. frontloading
E. the president’s schedule not allowing time to campaign
A ballot on which a voter selects candidates from more than one political party is called:
A. a blanket primary B. an open primary C. coattails
D. straight-‐ticket voting
E. split-‐ticket voting
The winner of an American legislative election is the candidate who wins a majority of votes.
A. true B. false
During campaigns, a candidate should:
A. ignore issues to focus on other things, because voters know almost nothing about politics
B. attack opponents rather than provide the candidate’s own views on the issues
C. provide detailed policy solutions
D. take simple issue positions on which the voters and candidate agree E. ignore opponents and focus on him-‐ or herself
American voters are more likely to support a candidate who has which of the following traits?
A. is homosexual B. is an athiest
C. served in the military
D. has had an extramarital affair
E. has little previous experience in government
Which of the following is the principal effect of campaign financing in elections?
A. It alters the behavior of politicians once in office.
B. It leads regular voters to refrain from donating, leaving the rich to finance elections.
C. The candidate with the most money is going to win. D. Being able to raise large amounts of money gives a candidate a realistic chance of winning.
E. Raising more money shows that the candidate will be effective at governing.
A tracker is:
A. technology for watching voter reaction to candidate speeches, debates, and advertisements
B. a poll that is continuously in the field to determine trends in support for a candidate
C. a campaign staff member who follows an opponent in order to record the opponent’s slipups and embarrassments
D. a press term for reporters who are part of a candidate’s traveling press E. a device to count hits on the candidate’s Web page
Voters who are angry with the government have all of the following EXCEPT:
A. a lower tendency to turn out for an election
B. a belief that government actions do not affect them
C. a belief that voting will have no impact on government policy D. ambivalence about the outcome of the election
E. a tendency to see voting as an obligation and feelings of guilt if they abstain
A district with no sitting legislator who runs for reelection is called:
A. an open seat B. a closed seat C. a party seat D. a safe seat
E. a contested seat
All of the following distinguished the 2008 presidential election from prior elections EXCEPT:
A. the first African American elected president
B. the first viable female candidate who had a significant chance of winning her party’s nomination C. the first woman ever nominated for vice president D. the first candidate to decline federal funds for the general election E. the first election in half a century in which there was no incumbent president or vice president on the ballot
Which of the following examples best illustrates how candidates for office emphasize empathy for regular citizens?
A. Barack Obama’s visits to bowling alleys
B. Hillary Clinton’s 3 A.M. television advertisement
C. popular actor Michael J. Fox’s advertisement on behalf of Claire McCaskill D. John Kerry’s criticism of George Bush’s failure to capture Osama bin Laden E. the famous “Daisy” ad from 1964
In which of the following years did a nationalized election occur?
Soft money contributions are donations that are used to help elect or defeat a particular candidate.
A. true B. false
Citizens do not vote directly for presidential candidates.
A. true B. false
The procedures for counting disputed ballots are set forth by law, making it possible to determine the winner of a specific race, as long as there is a hand count.
A. true B. false
Candidates who are behind in election polls often use as a way to gain momentum and make the race competitive.
A. attack ads
B. the talent primary C. trackers
E. opposition research