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1. Which amendments to the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights and which explicitly limited the power of legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government?
2. A legal safeguard that prevents the government from arbitrarily depriving citizens of life, liberty, or property is called what?
3. Which constitutional amendment focuses on the rights reserved to the people?
4. Which level of government did the framers of the Constitution seek to restrict in power with the Bill of Rights?
5. The Supreme Court has selectively incorporated some of the Bill of Rights and applied them to state action through which constitutional amendment?
6. Which Bill of Rights protections has/have NOT been extended to the state level?
7. In its 2010 McDonald v. Chicago decision about the Second Amendment, what did the Supreme Court rule?
8. Which type of law gives a gun owner the MOST freedom to legally shoot another person?
9. Which means of political expression is guaranteed under the Constitution?
10. Which concept argues that true and free political discourse requires a forum for free and unrestrained political discussion?
11. Which legal/constitutional principle protects an individual from being held in custody without the right to be heard in a court of law?
12. Which legal case established the clear and present danger test in relation to free speech?
13. What was MOST important in the Supreme Court's shift from the clear and probable danger test to the imminent lawless action test?
14. Which 1969 legal case marked a reversal of the Supreme Court's traditional position and also saw the establishment
of the imminent lawless action test?
15. Which legal case concerned the burning of the American flag and led to a series of legal challenges?
16. False written statements that harm the reputation of another person are known as what?
17. In 1973 the Supreme Court developed a three-part test by which a book, film, or other form of expression would be considered legally obscene. What are the measures of this test?
18. What is prior restraint?
19. What do the religion clauses of the First Amendment call for?
20. Which case saw the Supreme Court rule against the subsidization of parochial schools through cigarette taxes?
21. What are the elements of the Lemon test, which are used to determine if a state law violates the establishment clause of the First Amendment?
22. Which case saw the Supreme Court rule against formalized prayer in public schools?
23. Under the First Amendment’s religion protections, what restrictions or prohibitions are placed on governments/public schools?
24. Which case, decided in 1965, first firmly established the right to privacy?
25. Regarding the right to privacy, when was it affirmed by the Supreme Court and has such a right been explicitly mentioned anywhere in the Constitution?
26. Which four amendments are known together as criminal due process rights?
27. Which 1961 decision extended exclusionary rules of search and seizure to state court proceedings?
28. In which places has the Court ruled that there is no reasonable expectation of privacy?
29. What did the Supreme Court rule in United States v. Jones in regards to the warrantless placement of a GPS tracing device in a suspect's car?
30. What does the Fifth Amendment establish?
31. Miranda v. Arizona legally established which personal liberties?
32. Which 1972 legal case saw the Supreme Court suspend the use of the death penalty?
33. Which organization showed its criticism of the government's recent domestic surveillance program by filing a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of the 2008 FISA Amendment Act, which increased the federal government's warrantless surveillance abilities?
34. Which piece of legislation passed in 2007 legally empowers the NSA to wiretap any communications that begin or end in a foreign country?
35. What is practice called that transfers custody of suspected terrorists to other nations for imprisonment and interrogation?
36. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits businesses from making discriminatory hiring decisions based on which inherent characteristics?
37. Which tests do the courts apply to determine when unequal treatment is legal?
38. Which test is applied by the courts in cases related to suspect classifications?
39. Which 1967 case determined state laws barring interracial marriage were unconstitutional?
40. Sex-based discrimination cases are subject to which legal treatment test?
41. Using the ordinary scrutiny test, courts have been willing to allow what type of differential treatment?
42. What did/does the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act call for and what is its current status?
43. On what bases or biases are attacks against individuals considered hate crimes under most state law? NOT
44. The active yet nonviolent refusal to comply with morally-objectionable laws, used by abolitionist organizations like the American Anti-Slavery Society and civil rights activists like Martin Luther King, Jr., is known as what?
45. Which 1857 Supreme Court decision set the stage for the Civil War by mobilizing the abolitionist movement?
46. Which amendment was passed in 1868 and provided for due process of law, equal protection under the law, and
respect for the privileges and immunities of all citizens?
47. Laws passed immediately after the Civil War by southern states that limited the rights of "freemen," or former slaves, were known as what?
48. Southern miscegenation laws that banned interracial marriage or cohabitation are an example of what type of segregation?
49. What segregationist laws and techniques were used in southern states during the Jim Crow era to deny African Americans their voting rights?
50. Which Court ruling created the separate but equal doctrine, which upheld state laws that mandated racial separation in schools and all public accommodations?
51. Which aspect of racial discrimination became the primary target of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in its first decades of existence?
52. Which Supreme Court decision ended the federal government's support for separate but equal practices?
53. The Montgomery bus boycott began after the arrest of whom for refusing to give up a seat on the bus for a white
54. In its 2013 Shelby v. Alabama decision about voting rights, what did the Supreme Court find?
55. Which gender/racial group has the LOWEST average wage?
56. Which legal case was the first to argue that the Fourteenth Amendment's protections also applied to women?
57. Which amendment to the Constitution prohibits the federal government from abridging or denying citizens the right to vote on account of sex?
58. Women were provided equal protection under the law by which amendment or legislative act?
59. Under the 1976 case of Craig v. Boren, in order for different treatment in a sex-based discrimination case to be legal it must be conform to which standard that was established in the heightened scrutiny test?
60. The experience of facing discrimination for multiple reasons, such as because you are black, low-income, and female is known as what?
62. Which is the largest minority group in the United States?
63. Which 1971 Court decision established Latinos as a legally recognized minority group in the United States?
64. Which minority group enjoys the highest median income?
65. What was the main purpose of the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments, passed in 2008?
66. Which U.S. president was the first to define and use the term affirmative action?
67. Private companies, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies that receive federal government contracts worth at least how much money are required by law to have an affirmative action?
68. What do critics of affirmative action argue?
69. Colleges and universities use affirmative action policies to ensure a student body that is diverse in what?
70. In Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) the Supreme Court ruled that in making admissions decisions, how could universities consider race?
71. Which factors have social scientists argued exert the strongest influence on political socialization?
72. Since 1956, the first- through twelfth-grade Weekly Reader student poll has correctly predicted the outcome of
every presidential election. What is the best explanation for this?
Which racial youth cohort is the most politically engaged?
Which racial youth cohort is more likely to be involved in community activities?
Which racial youth cohort is LEAST likely to have engaged in political protests?
What do polls measuring approval of the way President Obama handles his job show?
Which regions tend to favor the Democrats?
What is a straw poll?
What was the main reason why the Literary Digest eventually failed to predict the outcome of a presidential
82. Because it is impossible to measure everyone's opinions, pollsters frequently rely on what?
83. Pollsters that structure a sample so that it is representative of the characteristics of a target population are using
what type of sampling?
84. A poll that measures changes in public opinion over time is known as what?
85. Since 2008, which issue has been identified by respondents as the "most important problem" facing the country?
86. Relationships that improve our individual lives by giving us social connections to solve common problems are forms of what?
87. In what way do interest groups succeed in channeling civic participation?
88. What are the tenets pluralist theory? NOT
89. What theory posits that political power is dominated by the wealthy, who use that power for the benefit of themselves?
90. Which demographic characteristics are the best predictors of interest group membership?
91. Which type of incentives for joining interest groups are closely linked to Robert Putnam's idea of social capital?
92. Members of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals are motivated primarily by what type of incentive?
93. When an interest group representing teachers lobbies a state legislature for an increase in retirement benefits, it is seeking to provide its members with what kind of benefits/incentives?
94. Which factor(s) influences and decides an interest group's political effectiveness?
95. What are the key factors in an interest groups' organizational environment?
96. The problem of someone deriving a benefit from the actions of others is known as what?
97. President Ulysses S. Grant coined what term after walking through the Willard Hotel and commenting on the presence of people who represented various interests and were waiting to speak to members of Congress?
98. What lobbying tactics is/are employed by special interest representatives to gain access to policymakers?
99. The interaction of mutual interests involving interest groups, government officials, and members of Congress is known as what?
100. When interest groups engage in indirect strategies to support candidates supportive of their agendas, it is known as what?
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