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refers to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.”
addresses the duties that states within the United States have to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state."
deals with the division of governmental functions and financial relations among levels of government.
are the main source of federal aid to state and local government, can be used only for specific purposes and for helping education or categories of state and local spending
: a grant from a central government that a local authority can allocate to a wide range of services.
the government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens
Upheld Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003.
the clause in the First Amendment of the US Constitution that prohibits the establishment of religion by Congress.
is a standard currently used that was established by the United States Supreme Court in Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969), for defining the limits of freedom of speech.
in United States law is a condition required to establish libel against public officials or public figures and is defined as "knowledge that the information was false" or that it was published "with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not."
was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures.
the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution applies to federal enclaves and protects an individual's right to possess a firearm for traditionally lawful purposes
-strong national government organized into 3 branches
-two houses in legislature
-executive chosen by legislature
-council of revision with veto power
-national legislature with supreme powers
-one legislative house elected directly by the people
-sought to amend rather than replace
-one vote per state
-protected small states' interests while enhancing power of national gov
-House of Reps based on population and directly elected by people
-Senate of 2 members per state and elected by state legislatures
-reconciled interests of large and small states
-Humans are naturally power hungry.
“If men were angels we wouldn’t need a government”.
-Must set up a system that considers human nature.
-Constitution-sees human as reckless, need to protect the country against this.
Article IV Section 2
This clause protects fundamental rights of individual citizens and restrains state efforts to discriminate against out-of-state citizens.
prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner.
-consists of the mayor as chief executive and the local council as the legislative body, in which the mayor has veto power and a prescribed responsibility for the budget and other policy actions
-surveys and polls
is the variation in the youth participation rate caused by the particular year in which that participation is observed
interest groups run for office
write a letter to editor
contact public official
bring case to court
the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.
an armed uprising that took place in Massachusetts (mostly in and around Springfield) during 1786 and 1787, which some historians believe "fundamentally altered the course of United States' history."
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people
The Congress shall have Power ... To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
is a political arrangement in which power is divided between the federal and state governments in clearly defined terms, with state governments exercising those powers accorded to them without interference from the federal government
the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration
is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them without privilege of a judicial trial
It asserts that judges should hesitate to strike down laws unless they are obviously unconstitutional, though what counts as obviously unconstitutional is itself a matter of some debate.
is a type of U.S. tax-exempt organization organized under Section 527. is a tax-exempt nonprofit organization in the United States. Section 501(c)
manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class.
a procedure for ending a debate and taking a vote
-to enact laws for all people in the u.s.
-to represent the people from the districts they come from
Section 2 & 3
HEAD OF STATE HEAD OF GOV
-commander-in-chief -chief executive power
-pardons, reprieves -appoint and supervise
and amnesties executive officers
-chief diplomat -protect every state from
-recognize countries domestic violence or
-write treaties insurrection
-veto power -executive order
-state of union address
-doesn't come with office
-the ability to get people to see things their way and to get hem to do what they want
-contains pres's closest assistants
-3 types of structure
c. Ad hoc
-15 departments led by secretaries
-appointed by pres w/ consent of Senate
-manage specific policy areas
-division of labor marked by specialization
-activities governed by explicit rules and procedures
-hiring an advancement being governed by merit
-provide us with a bunch of services
-lack of efficiency
-no one want to be wasteful
-it's hard to do
-can be wonderful
-we get grumpy
-"that's not fair"
-carry out laws
-answer to their actions
-don't work together
-efficiency sometimes can't be equal
-if equal not efficient
-if equal unlikely to be fiscally responsible
-opportunities for sabotage
-judge all by same standards (rule of law)
-insure no one is above the law
-operate under rule of law
-state is always the plaintiff
-state charging individual(s) or corporation with violating a law
-charge is defendant
-no criminal charges at play
-charges of breach of contract
-charges of tortes claim (claiming that party harmed them through negligence or maleficent(intent))
-no criminal or jail
-94 district courts
-700 spots for judges
-circuit courts -issue stay of execution
-court of appeals when S.Ct. in recess
-overseen by 1 S. Ct. judge
-no facts of case
-judging acts of the courts
-panel of 3 judges
-en banc (all circuit judges there, huge case, probs
going to S. Ct.)
-review state courts
-extremely vague and ambiguous
-inferior courts established by Congress
-judges nominated by pres, confirmed by senate
-serve lifetime under "good behavior"
-can be impeached
-compensation that can't be reduced
-original jurisdiction of S.Ct. (fed gov., ambassadors, disputes2 or more states, rare)
-appellate jurisdiction (anything and everything)
A requirement stated in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments that treatment by state and federal governments in matters of life, liberty, or property of individuals be reasonable, fair, and follow known rules and procedures.
-make argument (brief)
3.(behind closed doors) draft opinions
5.writing of opinions
-Super-PACs are an outgrowth of this decision
-held that corporations and unions can raise and spend money freely on campaigns.
-the Court upheld limits on what corporate and union donors can contribute directly to a candidate or party, it ruled that their spending could not otherwise be restricted
-foundation for judicial review
-Marbury had legal right to his commission
-S.Ct. could not issue him a writ of mandamus because it lacked the constitutional authority to do so
The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in
was a United States Supreme Court case that declared that the National Labor Relations Act of 1935
was the first United States Supreme Court case since the New Deal to set limits to Congress's power under the Commerce Clause
was a United States Supreme Court ruling that established the unconstitutionality of certain interim provisions of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act.
was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in which the Court upheld Congress's power to enact most provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), commonly called Obamacare
was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision that recognized the freedom of the press by roundly rejecting prior restraints on publication
The Court ruled that the government violated the First Amendment's protection of freedom of the press when it attempted to stop newspaper publication of classified documents about the Vietnam War.
established the actual malice standard, which has to be met before press reports about public officials can be considered to be defamation and libel
incorporated the takings clause of the 5th Amendment into the due process clause of the 14th Amendment by requiring states to provide just compensation for seizing private property.
is a United States Supreme Court decision, overturned in 2003, that upheld, in a 5–4 ruling, the constitutionality of a Georgia sodomy law criminalizing oral and anal sex in private between consenting adults when applied to homosexuals
the United States Supreme Court held that the states cannot interfere with the powers which the national government has in the conduct of international affairs.
The Supreme Court of the United States struck down on First Amendment grounds several provisions in the 1974 Amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act.
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