Child and Family Studies 211: Development in Middle-Late Childhood Class #35 April 17, 2009 Review Piaget- Concrete Operations Seriation Memory Thinking Critical Creative Thinking Metacognition ?meta? = referring to itself?so, translated that means ?cognition about cognition? or ?thinking about thinking? Example: Think about the strategies you use to memorize something Other ?meta? words?meta-awareness (awareness of your own consciousness / awareness); meta-analysis (analysis of analyses) Some believe that teaching children how to think about their thinking (teaching and scaffolding metacognitive skills) will help children be more successful at learning. Defining Intelligence Intelligence Problem-solving skills Ability to adapt to and learn from experiences Reasoning ability Individual difference: differences between individuals that are stable and consistent over time. Intelligence and Its Assessment Response areas in Stanford-Binet Verbal ability and problem-solving skills Ability to learn from and adapt to experiences of everyday life Can only be measured indirectly Focus is on individual differences Measuring Intelligence: The Stanford-Binet Tests Mental age (MA): measure of an individual?s level of mental development Intelligence quotient (IQ) Normal distribution MA CA X 100 IQ The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores Mental Retardation IQ below 70 Limited mental ability (remember definition of intelligence) Difficulty adapting to everyday life 1 3.5 6 89 % Can work, support oneself Moderate 40-54 Require constant supervision Profoundly 0-24 Can talk, do simple tasks, require extensive supervision Severe 25-39 Difficulty adapting to daily life Mild 55-70 Limitations Classification IQ Extremes of Intelligence Giftedness Above-average intelligence (IQ over 130) and superior talent for something Precocity March to their own drummer Passion to master Intelligence and Its Assessment The Wechsler Scales Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III ? (WISC-III) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children ? IV Integrated (WISC-IV integrated) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) Interpreting Differences in IQ scores Creating Culture-Fair Tests Tests free of cultural bias Two types devised Items known in all SES and ethnic backgrounds No verbal questions Difficulty in creating Time limits may create bias Language differences Individual differences within groups Interpreting Intelligence High IQ does not equal future, ?guaranteed? success. Other factors contribute to a well-rounded, capable person. Therefore?VERY important not to over-interpret meaning of a high IQ. Types of Intelligence Sternberg?s Triarchic Theory Three main types of intelligence Analytical Creative Practical High analytic ability favored in conventional schools; creative students don?t conform Types of Intelligence Verbal Mathematical Spatial Bodily-Kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Gardner?s Eight Frames of Mind Examples? 1. Verbal: Read a book and write a response or summary of some or all. 2. Mathematical: Interpret a statistical chart and write a summary of the findings. 3. Spatial: Draw a picture based on something that has been read. 4. Bodily-Kinesthetic: Construct a diorama or model depicting a scene or concept. 5. Musical: Write lyrics or music to accompany a scene or concept. 6. Interpersonal: Compose interview questions to give to participants. 7. Intrapersonal: Write a journal entry giving a reflection on a scene, concept, or event. 8. Naturalistic: Write a response to a fact or phenomena of nature that reflects human interaction with the environment. In class activity? Get into groups of 3-4 people 2. Choose a topic / concept that you want to teach a group of 4th graders (@ 10 years old). 3. Create different activities that will teach that topic for at least three of the ?intelligences? (you can do more if there?s time). Language Development By age 11? Awareness of and diagnosis of speech disorders Early intervention / therapy important by this point Vocabulary should be an average of 40,000 words! Reading Basic-skills- and-phonetics approach Whole-language approach Instruction should parallel children?s natural language learning; reading materials should be whole and meaningful Stresses phonetics and basic rules for translating symbols into sounds; early reading instruction should involve simplified materials Types of Motivation Orientations and the related Mindsets Mastery motivation: Task oriented Focus on learning strategies and process of achievement Two responses to challenges Performance orientation Focus only on outcome (winning, being correct, etc.) Helpless orientation Attribute difficulty to lack of ability ?Learned helplessness? Motivation & Rewards Extrinsic motivation External incentives: rewards and punishments Intrinsic motivation Internal factors: self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wh_cHUgHVKw Achievement motivation Desire to accomplish something Gain mastery over our world Explore the unknown with enthusiasm and curiosity Achieve heights of success Self-Efficacy Belief that one can master situation and produce favorable outcomes Linked to effort and persistency Critical factor in achievement Linked to intrinsic motivation
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