Two Poleis: Sparta and Athens And ?Aristocratic? vs. ?Democratic? Constitutions A Trade & commerce, a ?middle class,? & overpopulation Greek colonization of Mediterranean, ca 550 I Religious, Socio-economic, & Military Pre-conditions B Military revolution: coming of Hoplite phalanx and sea warfare (triremes) C Religious: conception of gods as warrior nobility writ large Hoplite Phalanx II Case of ?aristocratic? Sparta (Origin in Dorian Migration) A Social and political institutions 1 Three tribes, tribal education of young, common phratry meals 2 Two kings, aristocratic Gerousia or Senate, & free spartiate assembly B Conquest and enslavement of Messenians instead of commerce or colonization D Reforms of Lycurgus and his ?revolution? (675 BCE?) 1 Political response to growing inequality among and within phratries 2 Gerousia or Senate (30 members) & ephors made elective by Spartan assembly 3 System of common meals based on new territorial divisions (oba, obai) 4 Citizens set at 9000 (the ?equals?) and entrusted with allotments of land Lycurgus (supposedly) E Predominance of social over political institutions Helots at War 1 System of education of males (after 7) by military divisions 2 Assignment of commercial activity to perioikoi 3 Allotment of slaves (helots) for household, farming and war 4 Constant threat of revolt by helots, who outnumber Spartiates 10 to 1 III The Case of Athens A Origin in union of 4 tribes of Attica (hedge on date) B Early shape of Athenian polis 1King-high priest, a military polemarch, and archons or judges of law 2 Aristocratic Areopagos, or Council of Elders and an Ecclesia or assembly C Early economy and social composition Attic Owl 1 Agriculture plus beginning of trade of oil, wine and textiles for grain around Black Sea 2 Wealthy blue-blooded nobility (Eupatrids) and lesser nobles beyond the hills 2 Introduction of coinage as means of exchange 4 Artisans & traders (thetes) with no rights and ?sixth-partner? peasants 5 Draco?s law: peasant indebtedness and enslavement and social conflict D Solon?s social and political reforms (594 BCE) 1 Cancellation of debts, restoration of freedom, end of peasant 6th portion 2 Eligibility for office based on class (500 or 300 measure men and thetes) 3 Creation of Council of 400 (check on Areopagos) open to hoplite class 4 Popular assembly and new law court (Heliaia) open to thetes 5 Right of assembly to meet, plus enhanced role in election of magistrates Solon, supposedly E Era of ?tyranny? by Peisistratos & sons (561 to 525 BCE) 1 Maintenance of Solon?s institutions, infusing them with his own power 2 Public building program and pursuit of Athens?s commercial interests 3 Coinage, judicial centralization, & fostering religious patriotism Peisistratos, depicted on Athenian Vase F Rise and reforms of Kleisthenes? (508 to 502 BCE) Kleisthenes?s Divisions 1 Rise to power vs. Isagoras supported by Spartans 2 Ten new representative tribes based on demes, now basis Athenian unit 3 Transformation of Council of 400 into Council of 500 based on demes 4 Selection by lot of archons (after Kleisthenes) G Culmination with Perikles: 460s 1 Further weakening of Aeropagos 2 Payment for time in political office 3 Extension of selection of magistrates by lot 4 Payment for time lost in voting
Want to see the other 12 page(s) in Powerpoint 14?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!