Chapter 2Ideologies: Images of Political Life Ideology Defined 1-- visionary theorizing 2 -- a systematic body of concepts especially about human life or culture b: a manner or the content of thinking characteristic of an individual, group, or culture c: the integrated assertions, theories and aims that constitute a sociopolitical program From the text: ?More or less a coherent system of political thinking? Some of the most elaborate and complete are ideologies such as Karl Marx?s views on politics For example, Marxism contains (1) a vision of justice, (2) an identified adversary, (3) a plan for attaining an ideal society, and (4) a conception of good government Liberalism and Conservatism Liberalism Originally came from the writings of John Locke Locke?s ideas influenced the American Declaration of Independence Lockean liberalism is a sphere of individual rights that government should respect and leave untouched role of state is to protect the ?life, liberty, and property? Liberalism begins with the idea that individual rights come first Modern liberals oppose the application of state power to enforce conventional moral, religious, or traditional standards of behavior advocates the security of individual choices over the state?s (or majority) demands for the continuation of a single set of values advocate the expansion of government authority to counteract corporate economic power and to create social conditions that improve opportunities starting to see inconsistencies here? Just wait! see many of society?s problems as being rooted in negative social conditions an emphasize on tolerance! need to be freed from both the restrictions of antiquated traditions and poverty Liberal policies are designed to preserve rights of individuals and to expand opportunities when social conditions dampen them Conservatism Difficult to define Status quo oriented? Hum, ?.yes. Distrust in use of reason to solve social and political problems The most fundamental element is support for the idea that traditional values strengthen society Human tendencies toward greed, promiscuity, aggressiveness and sloth need strong traditional values to inhibit those tendencies ? Churches, schools, even the state should act to preserve, even at the expense of some freedoms Sir Edmund Burke, often considered the father of conservative thinking Modern conservatism Focus on traditional moral values vs. focus on economic concerns that affect social issues People need to be good and do what is right Self restraint vs. self expression Right-wing GOP Right-wing Christians Capitalism As liberalism & conservatism not a complete ideology Refers to both an economic system and an ideology Economic exchange and private ownership A capitalist system is one in which profit-seeking behavior determines what happens in the economy Vs. a ?command? economic system found in Communism Heavy emphasis on individualism ? very USA Individual accomplishments, talents & private sphere of life General good is best served when each individual seeks economic interest ? Adam Smith, important advocate of capitalist ideology: the ?invisible hand? Often associated with distrust of government control of social resources Supports deregulation of industries Laissez faire (French for leave alone) a doctrine opposing governmental interference in economic affairs beyond the minimum necessary for the maintenance of peace and property rights Marxism Marxism is the set of ideas derived from Karl Marx (1818-1883) Everything important in society could be accounted for through the impact of class struggles, even beliefs of the people ?It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but, on the contrary, their social existence determines their consciousness.? Opposite of ?traditional moral values? Economic determinism ? the belief that economic forces largely determine ideas and political movements Stages of Social Evolution, according to Marx Communalism ? the economic system that existed before the evolution of private property, slavery or classes Feudalism ? arose when agricultural productivity advanced, created first class divisions Capitalism emerged as a consequence of further economic development Socialism ? productivity would increase to the point where the needs of society would be met without government help Communism ? the state would ?wither away? with no class conflict to resolve, ownership of the means of production would pass from the state to the workers Understanding Marx = understanding his time Conditions in the work place: recall Oliver Twist? Immature MFG based economy ? low skill and low pay Evolution of society Communalism ? Feudalism ? Capitalism --- Cummunalism/Communism (Hunters/gatherers ? to oppressed workers in a developed capitalist state --- key to revolution) Revolution stemming from economic oppression Owners/non-owners of production Interim provisional ?dictatorship? Bourgeoisie ? the capitalist Proletariat ? the working class Socialism Shares with Marxism concern of divisive effects of private property Applies to a diverse range of approaches to politics Core idea ? the assumption that a just society requires purposeful social action -- actions based on private interests prevent the achievement of a fair society Focuses on the potential for community and public interest, as opposed to profit seeking and self-interest Forces of public interest must be used as a restraint on the forces of private interest Two Camps Social Democratic Parties Working within an industrial democracy ? democratic representation Revolutionist Parties and politicians for social and economic change through revolutions ? based on Marx Socialism Policy Implications Socialist governments 1) Usually have adopted some degree of public ownership of banking, communications, transportation, and steel production, among other industries, to ensure that allocations are in the public interest 2) Usually regulate private industries extensively 3) Have large, expensive welfare systems 4) Have high taxes, taking a larger proportion from those with high incomes 5) Favor public service delivery over private services (ex., education, municipal services) Other Ideologies Feminism Females should enjoy the same rights and responsibilities as males Laws and practices placing females in a lower status are unfair Also can refer to an approach that attempts to identify special feminine (and masculine) qualities, usually arguing that the feminine qualities have not been appreciated and the masculine qualities have dominated and distorted social and cultural development (radical or gender feminism) Libertarianism Liberty from government control Most extreme form of limited government Although some shared beliefs with liberals and conservatives Cannot incorporate any positive idea of the public interest Environmentalism Became an ideology at the beginning of the twenty-first century Some believe it is one of many issues, along with poverty, national defense, and economic security. Many feel that current threats to the environment are so critical that virtually every policy decision should be made on the basis of its potential impact on the environment Global warming, the Kyoto Treaty Fascism Originated in Europe, early 20th Century Short on intellectual content and long on emotion Aimed more at the heart than mind In fact, anti-intellectual Includes an extreme belief in political obedience, a distrust of foreigners, and the conviction that progress is possible only through conquest and war Adamantly rejects the liberal?s notion that all people have equal rights that should be protected and enhanced: the anti-thesis of the American Declaration of Independence Dominate business and economic enterprise, for the need of the state ? this would be the anti-thesis of conservatism Some have argued that fascism is an extreme form of conservatism Intense nationalism and racism Military might In sum: Super-nationalism! Islamic Fundamentalism Close link between politics and religion Not unique to Islam Minority in the Middle East and other parts of the Muslim world Has the qualities of both a political ideology and a religious theology Militant Islamic Fundamentalism live by traditional Islamic codes Not true before Iranian Islamic revolution of 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini said Islam is politics Anarchism A society without government Radical anarchists seek to destroy government by force and violence
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