PPP101 FINAL FOR Prof. MDWeiner
- Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway
- Anthropology 101
- PPP101 FINAL FOR Prof. MDWeiner
Last Modified: 2011-07-19
Related Textbooks:Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology (13th Edition)
- Externalities are unintentional side effects of an activity affecting people other than those directly involved in the activity.
- An example of a negative externality would be a factory that pollutes as a result of its production process. This pollution may pose health risks for nearby residents yet the owner of the factory does not directly pay the additional cost to address any health issues or to help maintain the cleanliness of the air or water.
- An example of a positive externality would be a neighborhood resident who creates a private garden, the aesthetic beauty of which benefits other people in the community.
- Production externality – factory emission,
- consumption externality – buying a car that pollutes (cost of polluting not factored in to cost of vehicle)
a) technology – amount of parts per billion of noxious emissions during production
b) performance – miles per gallon for cars
c) environmental ambience standards
d) fiscal authority of government – taxes/spending
e) market incentives – cap and trade
a) Regulatory role – zoning, planning
b) Visionary role – what the city will be like in the future
traditional core assumption is that are cities are expanding, the trend that has caused the academic planning community to reassess that core assumption is empirical evidence suggesting the opposite: cities are shrinking.
Hospitals placed on seaports – first marine hospital was established to quarantine illness that might be brought in by sea-men.
- Maternal-Child health
- Heart-disease/stroke decline
- Occupational health/safety
- Tobacco awareness
- Water fluoridation
- Infectious disease control
- Family Planning
- Foods safer/healthier
- Motor-vehicle Safety
a) Greenhouse gases
b) Various sources of energy (energy independence)
b) Complex, uncertain
d) open-system (permeable)
e) hierarchical system (layered)
- Non-renewable – fossil fuel, nuclear
- Renewable – solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal
100 nuclear power reactors are currently in the US, the last one was built in 1979 because of 3-mile island incident (partial core meltdown in nuclear reactor)
- energy density – how much usable energy is there in a source?
- high energy density – uranium, low energy density – wood
the global energy paradox is that energy has become more efficient and cheaper but people still use more of it – paradox is explained by greater demand for energy (new technology) and also because since it is cheaper, it is valued less and used more generously
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