Exploring Lifespan Development Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Erikson?s Theory: Initiative versus Guilt Initiative New sense of purposefulness Eagerness to try new tasks, join activities with peers Play permits trying out new skills Strides in conscience development Guilt Overly strict superego, or conscience, causing too much guilt Related to excessive Threats Criticism Punishment from adults Self-Concept Based on: Observable characteristics Appearance Possessions Behavior Typical emotions and attitudes Asserting rights to objects (?Mine!?) helps define boundaries of self Self-Esteem Judgments we make about our own worth Feelings about those judgments Includes: Global appraisal Judgments of different aspects of self Developing Emotional Competence Emotional understanding improves Emotional self-regulation improves More self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt) and empathy Emotional Understanding Preschoolers judge: Causes Consequences Behavioral signs of emotions Challenged by conflicting cues Parents, play contribute to understanding Emotional Self-Regulation By age 3-4, know strategies for adjusting emotional arousal Effortful control important Affected by parents, temperament Self-Conscious Emotions Shame Embarrassment Guilt Envy Pride Preschoolers depend on adult feedback to know when to experience these emotions Culture also has an influence Sympathy and Empathy Sympathy Feeling of concern or sorrow for another?s plight Empathy Feeling same or similar emotions as another person Complex mix of cognition and emotion Must detect emotions, take other?s perspective Individual Differences in Empathy Temperament Sociable, assertive, good at emotional regulation More likely to display sympathy and prosocial behavior Parenting Warm, sensitive parents who encourage emotional expressiveness Peer Sociability in Play Nonsocial Activity Unoccupied, onlooker behavior Solitary play Parallel Play Plays near other children with similar materials, but does not try to influence them Social Interaction Associative play Cooperative play Cognitive Play Categories Functional Play Simple, repetitive motor movements With or without objects Constructive Play Creating or constructing something Make-believe Play Acting out everyday and imaginative roles Early Childhood Friendships ?Someone who likes you,? plays with you, shares toys Friendships change frequently Friends more reinforcing, emotionally expressive than non-friends Friendship provides social support Parental Influences on Early Peer Relations Direct Arrange informal peer activities Guidance on how to act toward others Indirect Secure attachment Emotionally expressive, sensitive communication Cooperative play Perspectives on Moral Development Psychoanalytic Freud: superego and guilt Today: induction, empathy-based guilt Social Learning Modeling moral behavior Behaviorist Rewards and Punishment Cognitive-Developmental Children as active thinkers about social rules Characteristics of Good Models of Moral Behavior Warmth and responsiveness Competence and power Consistency between words and behavior Punishment in Early Childhood Frequent and harsh physical punishment has undesirable and negative side effects Alternatives to harsh punishment: Time Out Withdrawing privileges Positive Discipline Parents can increase effectiveness of punishment: Consistency Warm parent-child relationship Explanations Corporal Punishment and Age of Child Positive Discipline Use transgressions as opportunities to teach Reduce opportunities for misbehavior Have children participate in family duties, routines Try compromising and problem solving Encourage mature behavior Moral Imperatives, Social Conventions, & Personal Choice Moral Imperatives Actions that protect people?s rights and welfare Social Conventions Customs determined solely by social consensus Matters of Personal Choice Do not violate rights Not socially regulated Up to the individual Types of Aggression Instrumental Meant to help the child get something he or she wants Hostile Meant to hurt someone else Types of Hostile Aggression Type How the Harm is Caused Direct or Indirect? Physical Physical injury Either Verbal Threats of physical aggression Name-calling Teasing Always direct Relational Social exclusion Malicious gossip Friendship manipulation Either Sources of Aggression Individual Differences Gender Temperament Family Harsh, inconsistent discipline Cycles of discipline, whining, and giving in Media violence Dangers of Media Violence Young children believe fictional violence is real Short-term problems with parents, peers Long-term link to aggressive behavior ?Hardens? children to aggression Helping Control Aggression Pair commands with reasons Avoid ?giving in? Avoid verbal insults, physical punishment Time-out Withdraw privileges Social problem-solving training Reduce family stress Gender Stereotypes in Early Childhood Begin around 18 months Men: sharp, rough Women: soft, round Strengthen & become rigid through early childhood Divide toys, clothing, tools, jobs, games, emotions, and more by gender One-sided judgments are joint product of gender stereotyping in environment and cognitive limitations Influences on Gender Typing Genetic Evolutionary adaptiveness Hormones Environmental Family Teachers Peers Broader social environment Theories of Gender Identity Social Learning Behavior leads to gender identity Cognitive-Developmental Self-perceptions (gender constancy) come before behavior Gender Schema Combines social learning and cognitive-developmental theories Child-Rearing Styles Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Uninvolved Characteristics of Child-Rearing Styles Acceptance Involvement Control Autonomy Authoritative High High Adaptive Appropriate Authoritarian Low Low High Low Permissive High Too low or too high Low High Uninvolved Low Low Low Indifference Cultural Variations in Child-Rearing Compared to middle-class European Americans, some groups might use More firm control More physical punishment Can seem less warm May be more appropriate to context Child Maltreatment Physical abuse Sexual abuse Neglect Emotional abuse Factors Related to Child Maltreatment Parent characteristics Child characteristics Family characteristics Community Culture Consequences of Child Maltreatment Emotional problems Poor emotional self-regulation Depression Adjustment difficulties Aggression Peer problems Substance abuse Delinquency School, learning problems Brain damage Preventing Child Maltreatment Separating families that cannot change Training high-risk parents Social supports for families Parents Anonymous Home visitation
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